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Using highly sensitive microarray-based procedures, we identified eight microRNAs (miRNAs) showing robust differential expression between 31 laser-capture-microdissected nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) and 10 normal healthy nasopharyngeal epithelial samples. In particular, miRNA mir-29c was expressed at one-fifth the levels in tumors as in normal(More)
Two adjacent papainlike cysteine protease (PCP) domains, PCP alpha and PCP beta, were identified in the N-terminal region of the open reading frame 1a replicase proteins of the arteriviruses porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. The replicase of the related virus equine arteritis virus contains only(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the genome of equine arteritis virus (EAV) was determined from a set of overlapping cDNA clones and was found to contain eight open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs 2 through 7 are expressed from six 3'-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs, which are transcribed from the 3'-terminal quarter of the viral genome. A number of these ORFs are(More)
We show that brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication protein 1a, 2a polymerase, and a cis-acting replication signal recapitulate the functions of Gag, Pol, and RNA packaging signals in conventional retrovirus and foamy virus cores. Prior to RNA replication, 1a forms spherules budding into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, sequestering viral(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with nearly all cervical cancers, 20% to 30% of head and neck cancers (HNC), and other cancers. Because HNCs also arise in HPV-negative patients, this type of cancer provides unique opportunities to define similarities and differences of HPV-positive versus HPV-negative cancers arising in the same tissue. Here, we(More)
To study the multistep process of cervical cancer development, we analyzed 128 frozen cervical samples spanning normalcy, increasingly severe cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1- CIN3), and cervical cancer (CxCa) from multiple perspectives, revealing a cascade of progressive changes. Compared with normal tissue, expression of many DNA(More)
Sequence analysis of the 3' part (8 kb) of the polymerase gene of the torovirus prototype Berne virus (BEV) revealed that this area contains at least two open reading frames (provisionally designated ORF1a and ORF1b) which overlap by 12 nucleotides. The complete sequence of ORF1b (6873 nucleotides) was determined. Like the coronaviruses, BEV was shown to(More)
To identify the molecular mechanisms by which EBV-associated epithelial cancers are maintained, we measured the expression of essentially all human genes and all latent EBV genes in a collection of 31 laser-captured, microdissected nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue samples and 10 normal nasopharyngeal tissues. Global gene expression profiles clearly(More)
Like many positive-strand RNA viruses, brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replication occurs in membrane-invaginated vesicular compartments. BMV RNA replication compartments show parallels with membrane-enveloped, budding retrovirus virions, whose release depends on the cellular multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway. BMV RNA replication compartments are not(More)
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) protein 1a has multiple key roles in viral RNA replication. 1a localizes to perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes as a peripheral membrane protein, induces ER membrane invaginations in which RNA replication complexes form, and recruits and stabilizes BMV 2a polymerase (2a(Pol)) and RNA replication templates at these sites(More)