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The contribution of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to human cognition remains unclear. The rostral (rACC) and dorsal (dACC) ACC cortex are implicated in tasks that require increased response control due to emotional and cognitive interference, respectively. However, both rACC and dACC are activated by conditions that induce changes in visceral arousal,(More)
There are two different conceptions of the innate basis for numerical abilities. On the one hand, it is claimed that infants possess a 'number module' that enables them to construct concepts of the exact numerosities of sets upon which arithmetic develops (e.g. Butterworth, 1999; Gelman & Gallistel, 1978). On the other hand, it has been proposed that(More)
Numbers can be used to represent different meanings, including order information ('Steve lives at house number 24') and quantity ('Steve is paid 24 pounds'). The few previous neuroimaging studies that investigated order and quantity processing reported conflicting evidence as to whether same or partially overlapping brain systems are engaged in these(More)
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are expressed in specific regions of the central nervous system during early human development. They may consequently influence aspects of cognition, or emotional and behavioural adjustment from childhood to adulthood, in conditions associated with abnormalities of the somatotropic axis. GH(More)
The difficulty in processing fractions seems to be related to the interference between the whole-number value of the numerator and the denominator and the real value of the fraction. Here we assess whether the reported problems with symbolic fractions extend to the nonsymbolic domain, by presenting fractions as arrays of black and white dots representing(More)
Even when two-digit numbers are irrelevant to the task at hand, adults process them. Do children process numbers automatically, and if so, what kind of information is activated? In a novel dot-number Stroop task, children (Grades 1-5) and adults were shown two different two-digit numbers made up of dots. Participants were asked to select the number that(More)
The traditional way of identifying children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLDs) using the low-achievement method with one-off assessment suffers from several limitations (e.g., arbitrary cutoff, measurement error, lacking consideration of growth). The present study attempted to identify children with MLD using the latent growth modelling approach,(More)
Children struggle with mathematics for different reasons. Developmental dyscalculia and low numeracy - two kinds of mathematical difficulties - may have their roots, respectively, in poor understanding of exact non-symbolic numerosities and of symbolic numerals. This study was the first to explore whether Chinese children, despite cultural and linguistic(More)
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