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The nuclear magnetic resonance structure of a covalently linked pair of calcium-binding (cb) epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) domains from human fibrillin-1, the protein defective in the Marfan syndrome, is described. The two domains are in a rigid, rod-like arrangement, stabilized by interdomain calcium binding and hydrophobic interactions. We propose a(More)
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, two important human pathogens, target host fibronectin (Fn) in their adhesion to and invasion of host cells. Fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs), anchored in the bacterial cell wall, have multiple Fn-binding repeats in an unfolded region of the protein. The bacterium-binding site in the amino-terminal(More)
Redox-regulated effector systems that counteract oxidative stress are essential for all forms of life. Here we uncover a new paradigm for sensing oxidative stress centred on the hydrophobic core of a sensor protein. RsrA is an archetypal zinc-binding anti-sigma factor that responds to disulfide stress in the cytoplasm of Actinobacteria. We show that RsrA(More)
We have examined the folding, stability and kinetics of intramolecular quadruplexes formed by DNA sequences containing four G3 tracts separated by either single T or T4 loops. All these sequences fold to form intramolecular quadruplexes and 1D-NMR spectra suggest that they each adopt unique structures (with the exception of the sequence with all three loops(More)
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules enable cytotoxic T lymphocytes to destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells, thereby preventing disease progression. MHC class I molecules provide a snapshot of the contents of a cell by binding to protein fragments arising from intracellular protein turnover and presenting these fragments at the cell(More)
The selection of peptides for presentation at the surface of most nucleated cells by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC I) is crucial to the immune response in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms of the rapid selection of high affinity peptides by MHC I from amongst thousands of mostly low affinity peptides are not well understood. We(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) proteins provide protection from intracellular pathogens and cancer via each of a cell's MHC I molecules binding and presenting a peptide to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. MHC I genes are highly polymorphic and can have significant diversity, with polymorphisms predominantly localised in the peptide-binding groove(More)
The protein calexcitin was originally identified in molluscan photoreceptor neurons as a 20 kDa molecule which was up-regulated and phosphorylated following a Pavlovian conditioning protocol. Subsequent studies showed that calexcitin regulates the voltage-dependent potassium channel and the calcium-dependent potassium channel as well as causing the release(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC I) present peptides to cytotoxic T-cells at the surface of almost all nucleated cells. The function of MHC I molecules is to select high affinity peptides from a large intracellular pool and they are assisted in this process by co-factor molecules, notably tapasin. In contrast to mammals, MHC(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) binds in a Ca2+-dependent manner to the intracellular C-terminal domains of most group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Here we combined mutational and biophysical approaches to define the structural basis of CaM binding to mGluR 7A. Ca2+/CaM was found to interact with mGluR 7A primarily via its C-lobe at a 1:1 CaM:C-tail(More)