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G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome and mediate cellular responses to an extensive array of hormones, neurotransmitters and sensory stimuli. Although some crystal structures have been determined for GPCRs, most are for modified forms, showing little basal activity, and are bound to inverse(More)
The plant light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) collects and transmits solar energy for photosynthesis in chloroplast membranes and has essential roles in regulation of photosynthesis and in photoprotection. The 2.5 A structure of pea LHC-II determined by X-ray crystallography of stacked two-dimensional crystals shows how membranes interact to(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are seven transmembrane helix proteins that couple binding of extracellular ligands to conformational changes and activation of intracellular G proteins, GPCR kinases, and arrestins. Constitutively active mutants are ubiquitously found among GPCRs and increase the inherent basal activity of the receptor, which often(More)
Recent years have seen tremendous breakthroughs in structure determination of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In 2011, two agonist-bound active-state structures of rhodopsin have been published. Together with structures of several rhodopsin activation intermediates and a wealth of biochemical and spectroscopic information, they provide a unique(More)
We determined the structure of the rhodopsin mutant N2C/D282C expressed in mammalian cells; the first structure of a recombinantly produced G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The mutant was designed to form a disulfide bond between the N terminus and loop E3, which allows handling of opsin in detergent solution and increases thermal stability of rhodopsin(More)
We present active-state structures of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs) rhodopsin carrying the disease-causing mutation G90D. Mutations of G90 cause either retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), a milder, non-progressive form of RP. Our analysis shows that the CSNB-causing G90D mutation introduces a salt bridge with(More)
Disruption of an interhelical salt bridge between the retinal protonated Schiff base linked to H7 and Glu113 on H3 is one of the decisive steps during activation of rhodopsin. Using previously established stabilization strategies, we engineered a stabilized E113Q counterion mutant that converted rhodopsin to a UV-absorbing photoreceptor with deprotonated(More)
GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) are seven-transmembrane helix proteins that transduce exogenous and endogenous signals to modulate the activity of downstream effectors inside the cell. Despite the relevance of these proteins in human physiology and pharmaceutical research, we only recently started to understand the structural basis of their activation(More)
Arrestins function as adapter proteins that mediate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization, internalization, and additional rounds of signaling. Here we have compared binding of the GPCR rhodopsin to 403 mutants of arrestin-1 covering its complete sequence. This comprehensive and unbiased mutagenesis approach provides a functional dimension to(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin,(More)