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The area devoted to growing transgenic plants expressing insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is increasing worldwide. A major concern with the adoption of Bt crops is their potential impact on nontarget organisms including biological control organisms. Regulatory frameworks should advocate a step-wise (tiered) approach to(More)
In this study, the effects of the Bt-toxin Cry1Ab and a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) on intestinal bacterial communities of adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) were investigated. It was hypothesized that changes in intestinal bacterial communities of honeybees may represent a sensitive indicator for altered intestinal physiology. Honeybees were fed in a(More)
An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods (NTAs) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is used internationally within regulatory toxicology and environmental sciences. The approach focuses(More)
A major concern regarding the deployment of insect resistant transgenic plants is their potential impact on non-target organisms, in particular on beneficial arthropods such as predators. To assess the risks that transgenic plants pose to predators, various experimental testing systems can be used. When using tritrophic studies, it is important to verify(More)
One of the primary concerns related to theadoption of insect resistant transgenic plantsin the environment is the detrimental effectthat these may pose on non-target organisms,including entomophagous arthropods (parasitoidsfand predators) which have an important functionin regulating pests. Despite the fact thatregulatory bodies require information(More)
The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before and during their commercial cultivation.(More)
Among herbivorous insects with a complete metamorphosis the larval and adult stages usually differ considerably in their nutritional requirements and food ecology. Often, feeding on plant structural tissue is restricted to the larval stage, whereas the adult stage feeds primarily or exclusively on plant-provided food supplements such as nectar and pollen.(More)
Earlier studies have shown that larvae of the green lacewing predator Chrysoperla carnea are negatively affected when preying on lepidopteran larvae that had been fed with transgenic maize expressing the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. To test whether the observed effects were directly caused by the Cry1Ab toxin, we have developed a bioassay which(More)
Scientific studies are frequently used to support policy decisions related to transgenic crops. Schmidt et al., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:221–228 (2009) recently reported that Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb were toxic to larvae of Adalia bipunctata in direct feeding studies. This study was quoted, among others, to justify the ban of Bt maize (MON 810) in Germany.(More)
volume 31 NumBeR 5 mAY 2013 nature biotechnology assessment of the suitability of the test systems, the test organisms and the test conditions that are required to clearly link observed effects to the test compound. We have analyzed the available NTA studies conducted with purified Cry1Ab protein or tissue from Bt maize plants (bi-trophic exposure)(More)