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Implantable neural microelectrodes that can record extracellular biopotentials from small, targeted groups of neurons are critical for neuroscience research and emerging clinical applications including brain-controlled prosthetic devices. The crucial material-dependent problem is developing microelectrodes that record neural activity from the same neurons(More)
Nanoscale building blocks are individually exceptionally strong because they are close to ideal, defect-free materials. It is, however, difficult to retain the ideal properties in macroscale composites. Bottom-up assembly of a clay/polymer nanocomposite allowed for the preparation of a homogeneous, optically transparent material with planar orientation of(More)
We report the design of surfaces that exhibit dynamic changes in interfacial properties, such as wettability, in response to an electrical potential. The change in wetting behavior was caused by surface-confined, single-layered molecules undergoing conformational transitions between a hydrophilic and a moderately hydrophobic state. Reversible conformational(More)
The development of biomaterials for drug delivery, tissue engineering and medical diagnostics has traditionally been based on new chemistries. However, there is growing recognition that the physical as well as the chemical properties of materials can regulate biological responses. Here, we review this transition with regard to selected physical properties(More)
We report a fully defined synthetic polymer coating, poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide] (PMEDSAH), which sustains long-term human embryonic stem (hES) cell growth in several different culture media, including commercially available defined media. The development of a standardized, controllable and sustainable culture(More)
Advances in the field of nanotechnology have fuelled the vision of future devices spawned from tiny functional components that are able to assemble according to a master blueprint. In this concept, the controlled distribution of matter or 'patchiness' is important for creating anisotropic building blocks and introduces an extra design parameter--beyond size(More)
Nature's particles, such as spores, viruses or cells, are adaptive--i.e., they can rapidly alter major phenomenological attributes such as shape, size, or curvature in response to environmental changes. Prominent examples include the hydration-mediated opening of ice plant seeds, actuation of pine cones, or the ingenious snapping mechanism of predatory(More)
Current practices to maintain human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, in an undifferentiated state typically depend on the support of feeder cells such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or an extracellular matrix such as Matrigel. Culture conditions that depend on these undefined(More)
The cellular environment impacts a myriad of cellular functions by providing signals that can modulate cell phenotype and function. Physical cues such as topography, roughness, gradients, and elasticity are of particular importance. Thus, synthetic substrates can be potentially useful tools for exploring the influence of the aforementioned physical(More)
Biomaterials form the basis of current and future biomedical technologies. They are routinely used to design therapeutic carriers, such as nanoparticles, for applications in drug delivery. Current strategies for synthesizing drug delivery carriers are based either on discovery of materials or development of fabrication methods. While synthetic carriers have(More)