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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a brain tumor that carries a dismal prognosis and displays considerable heterogeneity. We have recently identified recurrent H3F3A mutations affecting two critical amino acids (K27 and G34) of histone H3.3 in one-third of pediatric GBM. Here, we show that each H3F3A mutation defines an epigenetic subgroup of GBM with a distinct global(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin(More)
Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who(More)
Somatic mutations in the IDH1 gene encoding cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase have been shown in the majority of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO grades II and III. IDH2 encoding mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is also mutated in these tumors, albeit at much lower frequencies. Preliminary(More)
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy is the standard care in elderly patients with malignant astrocytoma and the role of primary chemotherapy is poorly defined. We did a randomised trial to compare the efficacy and safety of dose-dense temozolomide alone versus radiotherapy alone in elderly patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma. METHODS Between May 15,(More)
PURPOSE The standard of care for anaplastic gliomas is surgery followed by radiotherapy. The NOA-04 phase III trial compared efficacy and safety of radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy at progression with the reverse sequence in patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients (N = 318) were randomly assigned 2:1:1(More)
Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations(More)
O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation identifies a subpopulation of glioblastoma patients with more favorable prognosis and predicts a benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy (CT). Little is known about its prevalence and clinical significance in older glioblastoma patients. We studied 233 glioblastoma patients aged 70(More)
Hypermethylation of the DNA repair gene O(6)-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been linked to prolonged survival in glioblastoma patients treated with alkylating agents. It was aimed to analyze prospectively whether the MGMT status of malignant gliomas could be determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies (maximum volume: 1 mm(3)).(More)
PURPOSE The prognostic value of genetic alterations characteristic of glioblastoma in patients treated according to present standards of care is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS Three hundred one patients with glioblastoma were prospectively recruited between October 2004 and December 2006 at the clinical centers of the German Glioma Network. Two hundred(More)