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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin(More)
Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who(More)
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy is the standard care in elderly patients with malignant astrocytoma and the role of primary chemotherapy is poorly defined. We did a randomised trial to compare the efficacy and safety of dose-dense temozolomide alone versus radiotherapy alone in elderly patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma. METHODS Between May 15,(More)
Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours (sPNETs) are malignant central nervous system tumours of childhood which are histologically characterized by poorly differentiated neuroepithelial cells with the capacity for divergent differentiation into glial, neuronal, myogenic or melanotic lines. The histological differential diagnosis between sPNET and(More)
Somatic mutations in the IDH1 gene encoding cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase have been shown in the majority of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of WHO grades II and III. IDH2 encoding mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is also mutated in these tumors, albeit at much lower frequencies. Preliminary(More)
WHO grading of human brain tumors extends beyond a strictly histological grading system by providing a basis predictive for the clinical behavior of the respective neoplasm. For example, patients with glioblastoma WHO grade IV usually show a less favorable clinical course and receive more aggressive first-line treatment than patients with anaplastic(More)
OBJECTIVE Diffuse gliomas may harbor anaplastic foci which affect prognosis and determine adjuvant therapies. Such foci are not always detected by contrast-enhancement on MRI. Recently, other modalities have been introduced, such as FET-PET for pre-diagnostic imaging and 5-aminolevulinic derived tumor fluorescence for intraoperative identification of(More)
Silencing of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein expression because of MGMT gene promoter hypermethylation is considered to be associated with postoperative chemoradiotherapy benefits in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. The objective of this study was to clarify the usability of MGMT immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a clinical(More)
Survival of glioblastoma patients has been linked to the completeness of surgical resection. Available data, however, were generated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Data confirming that extensive cytoreduction remains beneficial to patients treated with the current standard, concomitant temozolomide radiochemotherapy, are limited. We therefore analyzed the(More)
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the chromosome arms 1p and 19q is frequent in oligodendroglial tumors and has been correlated with chemosensitivity and good prognosis in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. The oligodendroglioma-associated tumor suppressor genes on 1p and 19q are as yet unknown. To narrow down candidate regions on 1p, we investigated(More)