Learn More
In 26S proteasomes, "19S cap complexes" associate with either one or both ends of the barrel-shaped 20S core complex. These regulatory complexes which comprise about 20 different subunits, including 6 ATPases of the AAA family, are thought to recognize ubiquitinated substrate proteins, to dissociate and unfold them before threading them into the 20S core(More)
The proteasome represents the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system in eukaryotes. It confines proteolytic activity to an inner compartment that is accessible to unfolded proteins only. The strategy of controlling intracellular breakdown of proteins by self-compartmentalization is also used by different types of prokaryotic energy-dependent proteases.(More)
After a general introduction to three-dimensional electron microscopy and particularly to electron tomography (ET), the perspectives of applying ET to native (frozen-hydrated) cellular structures are discussed. In ET, a set of 2-D images of an object is recorded at different viewing directions and is then used for calculating a 3-D image. ET at a resolution(More)
Valosine-containing protein-like ATPase from Thermoplasma acidophilum is a member of the superfamily of ATPases associated with a diversity of cellular activities and is closely related to CDC48 from yeast and p97 from higher eukaryotes and more distantly to N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein. We have used electron tomography to obtain low-resolution(More)
The potential of electron microscope tomography as a tool for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information about large macromolecular assemblies is greatly extended by automation of data collection. With the implementation of automated control of tilting, focusing, and digital image recording described here, tilt series of frozen-hydrated specimens can be(More)
Automated electron tomography is shown to be a suitable means to visualize the shape of phospholipid vesicles embedded in vitrified ice. With a slow-scan charge-coupled device camera as a recording device, the cumulative electron dose needed to record a data set of 60 projections at a magnification of 20,000X can be kept as low as 15 e-/A2 (or 1500(More)
Tricorn protease is the core enzyme of a recently discovered modular proteolytic system. We present evidence that tricorn protease exists in vivo in the form of a higher-order assembly, namely as an icosahedral capsid. Its size exceeds that of many virus particles and represents by far the largest known homooligomeric enzyme complex. Each capsid is built(More)
A background-free observation of cold antihydrogen atoms is made using field ionization followed by antiproton storage, a detection method that provides the first experimental information about antihydrogen atomic states. More antihydrogen atoms can be field ionized in an hour than all the antimatter atoms that have been previously reported, and the(More)