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Tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) provide superior protection against infection in extralymphoid tissues. Here we found that CD103(+)CD8(+) T(RM) cells developed in the skin from epithelium-infiltrating precursor cells that lacked expression of the effector-cell marker KLRG1. A combination of entry into the epithelium plus local signaling by(More)
Although circulating memory T cells provide enhanced protection against pathogen challenge, they often fail to do so if infection is localized to peripheral or extralymphoid compartments. In those cases, it is T cells already resident at the site of virus challenge that offer superior immune protection. These tissue-resident memory T (T(RM)) cells are(More)
Like other cancers, aberrant gene regulation features significantly in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently found to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional/translational levels. The expression profiles of 157 miRNAs were examined in 19 HCC patients, and 19 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated miRNAs were found to be(More)
In recent years, various intervention strategies have reduced malaria morbidity and mortality, but further improvements probably depend upon development of a broadly protective vaccine. To better understand immune requirement for protection, we examined liver-stage immunity after vaccination with irradiated sporozoites, an effective though logistically(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) provide protection against pathogens and tumors. In addition, experiments in mouse models have shown that CTL can also kill antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC), reducing their ability to activate primary and secondary CD8(+) T cell responses. In contrast, the effects of CTL-mediated killing on CD4(+) T cell responses have(More)
UNLABELLED Airway epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV), resulting in productive virus replication and release. Macrophages (MΦ) are also permissive to IAV infection; however, virus replication is abortive. Currently, it is unclear how productive infection of MΦ is impaired or the extent to which seasonal IAV(More)
MicroRNA-224 (miR-224) is frequently over-expressed in liver and colorectal cancers. We and others have previously described the role of miR-224 over-expression in cell proliferation in vitro but we have yet to identify the relevant miR-224 direct target. In this study, we further demonstrated that miR-224 up-regulation promotes cell proliferation using(More)
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are significant human pathogens that provide one of the best-described examples of viral latency and reactivation. HSV latency occurs in sensory neurons, being characterized by the absence of virus replication and only fragmentary evidence of protein production. In mouse models, HSV latency is especially stable but the detection(More)
Allergen-specific CTL have a protective effect on allergic airway inflammation, a function thought to be mediated by cytokines, especially IFN-γ. However, the contribution of cytotoxic function to this protective effect has not been investigated. We examined the contribution of cytotoxic function to the therapeutic effect of allergen-specific CTL in(More)