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We have generated a panel of mAbs that identify three presumably novel human dendritic cell Ags: BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4. In blood, BDCA-2 and BDCA-4 are expressed on CD11c(-) CD123(bright) plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas BDCA-3 is expressed on small population of CD11c(+) CD123(-) dendritic cells. All three Ags are not detectable on a third blood(More)
The nitrite anion is reduced to nitric oxide (NO*) as oxygen tension decreases. Whereas this pathway modulates hypoxic NO* signaling and mitochondrial respiration and limits myocardial infarction in mammalian species, the pathways to nitrite bioactivation remain uncertain. Studies suggest that hemoglobin and myoglobin may subserve a fundamental(More)
Upon primary activation, T helper (Th) cell populations express different cytokines transiently and with different kinetics. Stimulation of naive murine splenic Th cells with the bacterial superantigen Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) in vitro results in expression of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-10 with fast, intermediate and slow kinetics,(More)
In an immune response, effector functions are controlled by T helper (Th) 1 cytokines [interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor-beta] and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10). Here we analyze by multiparameter immunofluorescence to what extent IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-gamma are co-expressed in individual normal(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are present in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissue and contribute substantially to both innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, we have described several monoclonal antibodies that recognize a plasmacytoid dendritic cell-specific antigen, which we have termed BDCA-2. Molecular cloning of BDCA-2 revealed that BDCA-2 is a novel type(More)
Obesity and resistance to insulin are closely associated with the development of low-grade inflammation. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is linked to obesity-associated inflammation; however, its role in this context remains controversial. Here we found that mice with an inactivated gene encoding the IL-6Rα chain of the receptor for IL-6 in myeloid cells (Il6ra(Δmyel)(More)
Following appropriate antigen-specific stimulation, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes rapidly express cytokines. Based on this stimulation-induced cytokine secretion and using cell surface affinity matrix technology we have developed a new method that permits specific, rapid and efficient detection, isolation and characterization of live antigen-specific(More)
A bias to either cell-mediated or antibody-mediated effector mechanisms is induced in an immune response against a pathogen, if activated T helper cells (Th) predominantly express Th1 [interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-beta] or Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines. Here we provide evidence that, due to the(More)
BACKGROUND Breakdown of tolerance against the commensal microflora is believed to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dendritic cells (DC) have been implicated in this process in various animal models, but data on human DC in IBD are very limited. AIM To characterise plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC) in(More)
Recent studies in mice have indicated that the long-lasting specific antibody responses seen after vaccination are probably due to the existence of long-lived plasma cells. Therefore, because the maintenance of humoral immunity does not necessarily reflect continuous restimulation of long-lived memory B cells, the question arises as to what degree antibody(More)