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Observational analyses have shown the width of the tropical belt increasing in recent decades as the world has warmed. This expansion is important because it is associated with shifts in large-scale atmospheric circulation and major climate zones. Although recent studies have attributed tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere to ozone depletion, the(More)
[1] We examine multidecadal changes in surface downward shortwave (SW) radiation flux, total cloud cover, SW cloud effect, and related parameters over Europe during 1965– 2004 using monthly gridded data from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), synoptic cloud reports, and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). One key issue is(More)
institutional repository or funder's repository and make it publicly available immediately. Abstract This paper highlights how the emerging record of satellite observations from the Earth Observation System (EOS) and A-Train constellation are advancing our ability to more completely document and understand the underlying processes associated with variations(More)
UNLABELLED This study examines how the convulsive threshold in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies with electrode placement (bilateral [BL] versus right unilateral [RUL]), age, gender, weight, and the nasion-inion measurements of the head. METHOD Twenty-eight subjects underwent stimulus dose titration to determine the convulsive threshold. Titration(More)
Extratropical atmosphere–ocean variability over the Northern Hemisphere of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) is examined and compared to observations. Results are presented for an extended control integration with a horizontal resolution of T85 (1.4°) for the atmosphere and land and ϳ1° for the ocean and sea ice. Several atmospheric(More)
The summer-to-summer variability of the areal extent of marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC; stratus, strato-cumulus, and fog) over the North Pacific is examined for the period of record 1952–92 using a dataset based on surface observations. Variability is largest in two regions: the central and western Pacific along 35ЊN coincident with a strong meridional(More)
[1] Global climate models typically do not correctly simulate cloudiness associated with midlatitude synoptic systems because coarse grid spacing prevents them from resolving dynamics occurring at smaller scales and there exist no adequate parameterizations for the effects of these subgrid-scale dynamics. Comparison of modeled and observed cloud properties(More)
[1] Liquid water path (LWP) variability at scales ranging from roughly 200 m to 20 km in continental boundary layer clouds is investigated using ground-based remote sensing at the Oklahoma site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Twelve episodes from the years of 1999 to 2001 are selected corresponding to conditions of overcast, liquid(More)