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The HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates viral entry into host cells. To enable the direct imaging of conformational dynamics within Env, we introduced fluorophores into variable regions of the glycoprotein gp120 subunit and measured single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer within the context of native trimers on the surface of HIV-1 virions. Our(More)
Binding to the CD4 receptor induces conformational changes in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. These changes allow gp120 to bind the coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4, and prime the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate virus-cell membrane fusion and virus entry. Soluble forms of CD4 (sCD4) and(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) enters cells following sequential activation of the high-potential-energy viral envelope glycoprotein trimer by target cell CD4 and coreceptor. HIV-1 variants differ in their requirements for CD4; viruses that can infect coreceptor-expressing cells that lack CD4 have been generated in the laboratory. These(More)
Binding to the primary receptor CD4 induces conformational changes in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein that allow binding to the coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) and ultimately trigger viral membrane-cell membrane fusion mediated by the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein. Here we report the derivation of an HIV-1(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) interaction with the primary receptor, CD4, induces conformational changes in the viral envelope glycoproteins that allow binding to the CCR5 second receptor and virus entry into the host cell. The small molecule NBD-556 mimics CD4 by binding the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein, moderately inhibiting virus entry(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein trimer consists of gp120 and gp41 subunits and undergoes a series of conformational changes upon binding to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, that promote virus entry. Surprisingly, we found that the envelope glycoproteins of some HIV-1 strains are functionally inactivated by prolonged(More)
The low-molecular-weight compound JRC-II-191 inhibits infection of HIV-1 by blocking the binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 receptor and is therefore an important lead in the development of a potent viral entry inhibitor. Reported here is the use of two orthogonal screening methods, gold docking and ROCS shape-based similarity(More)
Cellular infection by HIV-1 is initiated with a binding event between the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 and the cellular receptor protein CD4. The CD4-gp120 interface is dominated by two hotspots: a hydrophobic gp120 cavity capped by Phe43(CD4) and an electrostatic interaction between residues Arg59(CD4) and Asp368(gp120). The CD4 mimetic small-molecule(More)
HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved a sophisticated mechanism to avoid exposure of ADCC-mediating Env epitopes by down-regulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env at the(More)