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The United States Environmental Protection Agency between the years 1961 and 1995 registered 177 products containing viable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Numerous laboratory studies have demonstrated that Bt and Bt products are noninfectious and are toxic to mammals only at a dose > or =10(8) colony forming units (cfu) per mouse (a human equivalent based on(More)
Mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins and ochratoxins, are widely distributed in nature and are frequently problematic crop contaminants that cause millions of dollars of annual losses in the United States. Insect infestations of crop plants significantly exacerbate mycotoxin contamination. Damage to a variety of nut species by Amyelois transitella Walker (navel(More)
The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a serious pest of many tree crops in California orchards, including almonds, pistachios, walnuts and figs. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying detoxification of phytochemicals, insecticides and mycotoxins by this species, full-length CYP6AB11 cDNA was isolated from(More)
The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive lepidopteran pest of almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb] and pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) in California and is a serious problem in figs (Ficus carica L.) and walnuts (Juglans spp.). In addition to direct damage, larval feeding leaves nuts vulnerable(More)
The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is a polyphagous pest of California nut crops and is responsible for extensive losses in the United States. It directly damages crops by feeding and contaminating nuts with frass and webbing and vectors saprophytic fungi that infect crops. The navel orangeworm is commonly associated with Aspergillus(More)
The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive pest of nut crops, including almonds and pistachios, in California orchards. Management of this insect has typically been a combination of cultural controls and insecticide use, with the latter increasing substantially along with the value of(More)
The outcome of mixed infection by three species of microsporidia in the genera Endoreticulatus, Nosema, and Vairimorpha, isolated from different populations of Lymantria dispar in Bulgaria, was evaluated in the laboratory. All possible combinations of two species were administered either simultaneously or sequentially to larvae, and mortality, duration of(More)
A series of laboratory and field studies were conducted using three lines of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), reared on wheat bran diet and almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb, at constant and fluctuating temperature. The duration of development on wheat bran diet at constant temperature differed significantly(More)
The navel orangeworm is the primary insect pest of almonds in California, and egg traps are the primary means of monitoring this pest. A previous study found that the current use of 2-4 traps per 64 ha block usually is not sufficient to provide management information specifically for that block. In this study, we compare data from large grids of egg traps(More)
Large-scale field efficacy trials of methoxyfenozide (Intrepid), a reduced-risk molting agonist insecticide, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in an orchard containing 'Nonpareil' and 'Sonora almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] located in Kern County, CA. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, the organophosphate phosmet (Imidan) alone or in(More)