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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as an important animal model in various fields including neurobiology, developmental biology, and genetics. Characteristics of this animal model that have contributed to its success include its genetic manipulability, invariant and fully described developmental program, well-characterized genome, ease of(More)
In this chapter, we describe a gene-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR)-based assay for the measurement of DNA damage, using amplification of long DNA targets. This assay has been extensively used to measure the integrity of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes exposed to different genotoxins, and has proved particularly valuable in(More)
A population of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting a Superfund site on the Elizabeth River (VA, USA) is tolerant of the acute toxicity of the sediments from the site; previous work suggests that this tolerance is based both on genetic adaptation and physiological acclimation. In this study, larval first- and second-generation (F1 and F2) offspring(More)
The rapidly increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in consumer products and medical applications has raised ecological and human health concerns. A key question for addressing these concerns is whether Ag NP toxicity is mechanistically unique to nanoparticulate silver, or if it is a result of the release of silver ions. Furthermore, since Ag NPs(More)
A bacteriocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici has been purified to homogeneity by a rapid and simple four-step purification procedure which includes ammonium sulphate precipitation, chromatography with a cation-exchanger and Octyl Sepharose, and reverse-phase chromatography. The purification resulted in an approximately 80,000-fold increase in the(More)
Wildcaught killifish from a contaminated site on the Elizabeth River (VA, USA) are refractory to induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A, measured as catalytic activity and immunodetectable CYP1A protein) after exposure to typical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, as has been reported for fish from other sites highly contaminated with these compounds.(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model for the study of DNA damage and repair related processes such as aging, neurodegeneration, and carcinogenesis. However, DNA repair is poorly characterized in this organism. We adapted a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to characterize repair of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet type C (UVC) radiation(More)
Telomerase is often re-activated in human cancers and is widely used to immortalize cells in culture. In addition to the maintenance of telomeres, telomerase has been implicated in cell proliferation, genomic instability and apoptosis. Here we show that human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is targeted to the mitochondria by an N-terminal leader(More)
The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay allows measurement of DNA damage in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes without isolation of mitochondria. It also permits measurement of relative mitochondrial genome copy number. Finally, it can be used for measurement of DNA repair in vivo when employed appropriately. In this manuscript we briefly(More)
Cyclobutane thymine dimers (T-T) comprise the majority of DNA damage caused by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation. These lesions generally block replicative DNA polymerases and are repaired by nucleotide excision repair or bypassed by translesion polymerases in the nucleus. Mitochondria lack nucleotide excision repair, and therefore, it is important to(More)