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Cilia are microscopic projections that extend from eukaryotic cells. There are two general types of cilia; primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, whereas motile cilia exert mechanical force. The motile cilia emerging from human airway epithelial cells propel harmful inhaled material out of the lung. We found that these cells express sensory bitter taste(More)
Individuals exposed to inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) can develop airway symptomatology and exacerbations of asthma. Moreover, among those occupationally exposed to organic dusts, the progression of airflow obstruction is related to the endotoxin concentration in the bioaerosol. Not everyone exposed to high concentrations of LPS develops these(More)
OBJECTIVES To (1) investigate effects of aerobic walking on motor function, cognition, and quality of life in Parkinson disease (PD), and (2) compare safety, tolerability, and fitness benefits of different forms of exercise intervention: continuous/moderate intensity vs interval/alternating between low and vigorous intensity, and individual/neighborhood vs(More)
Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in(More)
Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is associated with the presence of airway inflammation in asthma and is seen in individuals occupationally exposed to grain dust. To better understand the relationship between BHR and pulmonary inflammation after grain dust exposure, we carried out an inhalation challenge to corn dust extract (CDE) on seven subjects with BHR(More)
The hygiene hypothesis suggests that early life exposure to a nonhygienic environment that contains endotoxin reduces the risk of developing allergic diseases. The mechanisms underlying the hygiene hypothesis are unclear and may involve subtle immune system interactions that occur during maturation. Experimental objectives of this study were to use a novel(More)
The 30 patients who underwent lung transplantation between 1990 and 1996 were included in this study, and data were analyzed to find predictors of 1-year survival posttransplantation. All patients were followed throughout the posttransplantation period. Fifteen patients had a pretransplantation diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorders. Of the 30(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. The purpose of the ADEPT study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics, by profiling asthma (NCT01274507). This report presents for the first time the study design, and(More)
BACKGROUND Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. METHODS This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a biologically heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. There is uncertainty regarding the stability of clinical characteristics and biomarkers in asthma over time. This report presents the longitudinal stability over 12 months of clinical characteristics and(More)