Joel N. Kline

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There is much variability between individuals in the response to inhaled toxins, but it is not known why certain people develop disease when challenged with environmental agents and others remain healthy. To address this, we investigated whether TLR4 (encoding the toll-like receptor-4), which has been shown to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness(More)
Cilia are microscopic projections that extend from eukaryotic cells. There are two general types of cilia; primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, whereas motile cilia exert mechanical force. The motile cilia emerging from human airway epithelial cells propel harmful inhaled material out of the lung. We found that these cells express sensory bitter taste(More)
The expression of inducible antimicrobial peptides, such as human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) by epithelia, comprises a component of innate pulmonary defenses. We hypothesized that HBD-2 induction in airway epithelia is linked to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found that primary cultures of well-differentiated human(More)
Underdeveloped nations are relatively protected from the worldwide asthma epidemic; the hygiene hypothesis suggests this is due to suppression of Th2-mediated inflammation by increased exposure to pathogens and their products. Although microbial exposures can promote Th2-suppressing Th1 responses, even Th2-skewing infections, such as helminths, appear to(More)
Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in(More)
In the last several decades, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of atopic disorders including asthma in "Western" societies; a relationship has been identified between lack of early-life exposure to microbes or microbial products and increased susceptibility to atopic disorders. The innate immune system is activated by early microbial(More)
Asthma has been increasing in industrialized countries. Evidence suggests that asthma is caused by a Th2 immune response to inhaled environmental Ags and that childhood infections protect against this. We have shown that bacterial DNA contains motifs, centered on unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, which induce Th1-type responses. We hypothesized that the Th1(More)
BACKGROUND Rush immunotherapy (RIT) presents an attractive alternative to standard immunotherapy. However, RIT carries a much greater risk of acute allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, would be effective in enhancing both safety and efficacy of RIT. METHODS Adult(More)
Endotoxin is one of the principal components of grain dust that causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To determine whether endotoxin responsiveness influences the development of chronic grain dust-induced airway disease, physiological and airway inflammation remodeling parameters were evaluated after an 8-wk exposure to corn(More)
Allergen immunotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment for atopic asthma. We have previously demonstrated that CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) can prevent the development of a murine model of asthma. In the current study, we evaluated the role of CpG ODN in the treatment of established eosinophilic airway inflammation and bronchial(More)