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There is much variability between individuals in the response to inhaled toxins, but it is not known why certain people develop disease when challenged with environmental agents and others remain healthy. To address this, we investigated whether TLR4 (encoding the toll-like receptor-4), which has been shown to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness(More)
Cilia are microscopic projections that extend from eukaryotic cells. There are two general types of cilia; primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, whereas motile cilia exert mechanical force. The motile cilia emerging from human airway epithelial cells propel harmful inhaled material out of the lung. We found that these cells express sensory bitter taste(More)
BACKGROUND Rush immunotherapy (RIT) presents an attractive alternative to standard immunotherapy. However, RIT carries a much greater risk of acute allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, would be effective in enhancing both safety and efficacy of RIT. METHODS Adult(More)
Underdeveloped nations are relatively protected from the worldwide asthma epidemic; the hygiene hypothesis suggests this is due to suppression of Th2-mediated inflammation by increased exposure to pathogens and their products. Although microbial exposures can promote Th2-suppressing Th1 responses, even Th2-skewing infections, such as helminths, appear to(More)
Individuals exposed to inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) can develop airway symptomatology and exacerbations of asthma. Moreover, among those occupationally exposed to organic dusts, the progression of airflow obstruction is related to the endotoxin concentration in the bioaerosol. Not everyone exposed to high concentrations of LPS develops these(More)
The expression of inducible antimicrobial peptides, such as human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) by epithelia, comprises a component of innate pulmonary defenses. We hypothesized that HBD-2 induction in airway epithelia is linked to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found that primary cultures of well-differentiated human(More)
BACKGROUND Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing the dinucleotide CpG in a specific sequence context (CpG-ODNs) have the ability to prevent the development of eosinophilic airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity in a murine model of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that CpG-ODNs stimulate expression of the T(H1)-inducing cytokines(More)
In 1997 the NHLBI updated guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. We hypothesized that not all components of the updated guidelines are well understood by the physicians who care for asthmatics. To develop appropriate educational interventions that address areas of physician misunderstanding, it is important to identify these components.(More)
Asthma has been increasing in industrialized countries. Evidence suggests that asthma is caused by a Th2 immune response to inhaled environmental Ags and that childhood infections protect against this. We have shown that bacterial DNA contains motifs, centered on unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, which induce Th1-type responses. We hypothesized that the Th1(More)