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Cilia are microscopic projections that extend from eukaryotic cells. There are two general types of cilia; primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, whereas motile cilia exert mechanical force. The motile cilia emerging from human airway epithelial cells propel harmful inhaled material out of the lung. We found that these cells express sensory bitter taste(More)
Individuals exposed to inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) can develop airway symptomatology and exacerbations of asthma. Moreover, among those occupationally exposed to organic dusts, the progression of airflow obstruction is related to the endotoxin concentration in the bioaerosol. Not everyone exposed to high concentrations of LPS develops these(More)
The expression of inducible antimicrobial peptides, such as human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) by epithelia, comprises a component of innate pulmonary defenses. We hypothesized that HBD-2 induction in airway epithelia is linked to pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found that primary cultures of well-differentiated human(More)
OBJECTIVES To (1) investigate effects of aerobic walking on motor function, cognition, and quality of life in Parkinson disease (PD), and (2) compare safety, tolerability, and fitness benefits of different forms of exercise intervention: continuous/moderate intensity vs interval/alternating between low and vigorous intensity, and individual/neighborhood vs(More)
Toxic gases, vapors, and particles are emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) into the general environment. These include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, malodorous vapors, and particles contaminated with a wide range of microorganisms. Little is known about the health risks of exposure to these agents for people living in(More)
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains an important health problem among children in developing countries. Children living in these areas have a higher mortality from respiratory infections, which likely results in part from suboptimal nutrition, including VAD. Bronchial hyperreactivity can follow viral respiratory infections and may complicate the recovery. To(More)
Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is associated with the presence of airway inflammation in asthma and is seen in individuals occupationally exposed to grain dust. To better understand the relationship between BHR and pulmonary inflammation after grain dust exposure, we carried out an inhalation challenge to corn dust extract (CDE) on seven subjects with BHR(More)
Chronic airway inflammation is a hallmark of asthma, an immune-based disease with great societal impact. Honokiol (HNK), a phenolic neurotransmitter receptor (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) agonist purified from magnolia, has anti-inflammatory properties, including stabilization of inflammation in experimentally induced arthritis. The present study tested the(More)
The hygiene hypothesis suggests that early life exposure to a nonhygienic environment that contains endotoxin reduces the risk of developing allergic diseases. The mechanisms underlying the hygiene hypothesis are unclear and may involve subtle immune system interactions that occur during maturation. Experimental objectives of this study were to use a novel(More)
The 30 patients who underwent lung transplantation between 1990 and 1996 were included in this study, and data were analyzed to find predictors of 1-year survival posttransplantation. All patients were followed throughout the posttransplantation period. Fifteen patients had a pretransplantation diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorders. Of the 30(More)