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Antiretroviral therapy fails to cure HIV-1 infection because latent proviruses persist in resting CD4(+) T cells. T cell activation reverses latency, but <1% of proviruses are induced to release infectious virus after maximum in vitro activation. The noninduced proviruses are generally considered defective but have not been characterized. Analysis of 213(More)
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form in resting CD4+ T cells. We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. The mean(More)
A viral reservoir is a cell type or anatomical site in association with which a replication-competent form of the virus accumulates and persists with more stable kinetic properties than the main pool of actively replicating virus. This article reviews several cell types and anatomical sites proposed as potential reservoirs for HIV-1. It is now clear that(More)
Rare human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals, termed elite suppressors (ES), maintain plasma virus levels of <50 copies/ml and normal CD4 counts without therapy. The major histocompatibility complex class I allele group human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57 is overrepresented in this population. Mutations in HLA-B*57-restricted(More)
BACKGROUND Elite controllers spontaneously suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia but also demonstrate chronic inflammation that may increase risk of comorbid conditions. We compared hospitalization rates and causes among elite controllers to those of immunologically intact persons with medically controlled HIV. METHODS For adults in care at(More)
A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med.(More)
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce viremia to undetectable levels, suggesting that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, one potential mechanism for viral persistence involves the establishment of a state of latent infection. Recent studies have directly confirmed that HIV-1 establishes a state of latent infection in(More)
Elite suppressors (ES) are untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who control viremia to levels below the limit of detection of current assays. The mechanisms involved in this control have not been fully elucidated. Several studies have demonstrated that some ES are infected with defective viruses, but it remains unclear(More)
Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against autologous virus can reach high titers in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with progressive disease. Less is known about the role of NAb in HIV-1-infected patients with viral loads of <50 copies/ml of plasma, including patients on effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and(More)
HIV-1 persists in infected individuals in a stable pool of resting CD4(+) T cells as a latent but replication-competent provirus. This latent reservoir is the major barrier to the eradication of HIV-1. Clinical trials are currently underway investigating the effects of latency-disrupting compounds on the persistence of the latent reservoir in infected(More)