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Antiretroviral therapy fails to cure HIV-1 infection because latent proviruses persist in resting CD4(+) T cells. T cell activation reverses latency, but <1% of proviruses are induced to release infectious virus after maximum in vitro activation. The noninduced proviruses are generally considered defective but have not been characterized. Analysis of 213(More)
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce plasma virus to undetectable levels, indicating that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, HIV-1 can persist in a latent form in resting CD4+ T cells. We measured the decay rate of this latent reservoir in 34 treated adults whose plasma virus levels were undetectable. The mean(More)
A viral reservoir is a cell type or anatomical site in association with which a replication-competent form of the virus accumulates and persists with more stable kinetic properties than the main pool of actively replicating virus. This article reviews several cell types and anatomical sites proposed as potential reservoirs for HIV-1. It is now clear that(More)
Rare human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals, termed elite suppressors (ES), maintain plasma virus levels of <50 copies/ml and normal CD4 counts without therapy. The major histocompatibility complex class I allele group human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57 is overrepresented in this population. Mutations in HLA-B*57-restricted(More)
BACKGROUND Elite controllers spontaneously suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia but also demonstrate chronic inflammation that may increase risk of comorbid conditions. We compared hospitalization rates and causes among elite controllers to those of immunologically intact persons with medically controlled HIV. METHODS For adults in care at(More)
HIV-1 persists in infected individuals in a stable pool of resting CD4(+) T cells as a latent but replication-competent provirus. This latent reservoir is the major barrier to the eradication of HIV-1. Clinical trials are currently underway investigating the effects of latency-disrupting compounds on the persistence of the latent reservoir in infected(More)
Elite suppressors (ES) are untreated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who control viremia to levels below the limit of detection of current assays. The mechanisms involved in this control have not been fully elucidated. Several studies have demonstrated that some ES are infected with defective viruses, but it remains unclear(More)
In patients with progressive disease, untreated HIV-1 infection is characterized by high viral loads and decreasing CD4(+)T cell counts which lead to opportunistic infection and other AIDS-defining illness. A rare subset of patients termed 'elite controllers' (ECs) maintain control over viremia and often retain normal CD4(+)T cell levels without treatment(More)
Elite controllers (EC) are HIV-1 infected patients control viral replication to a level of <50 copies/ml without antiretroviral therapy. These patients are also known as elite suppressors, or HIV controllers, and they differ from traditional long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) who maintain stable CD4 counts and are asymptomatic without antiretroviral therapy.(More)
Combination therapy for HIV-1 infection can reduce viremia to undetectable levels, suggesting that prolonged treatment might eradicate the infection. However, one potential mechanism for viral persistence involves the establishment of a state of latent infection. Recent studies have directly confirmed that HIV-1 establishes a state of latent infection in(More)