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Rare human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals, termed elite suppressors (ES), maintain plasma virus levels of <50 copies/ml and normal CD4 counts without therapy. The major histocompatibility complex class I allele group human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*57 is overrepresented in this population. Mutations in HLA-B*57-restricted(More)
HIV-1 persists in infected individuals in a stable pool of resting CD4(+) T cells as a latent but replication-competent provirus. This latent reservoir is the major barrier to the eradication of HIV-1. Clinical trials are currently underway investigating the effects of latency-disrupting compounds on the persistence of the latent reservoir in infected(More)
HIV-1-infected elite controllers or suppressors (ES) maintain undetectable viral loads (< 50 copies/mL) without antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms of suppression are incompletely understood. Modulation of HIV-1 replication by miRNAs has been reported, but the role of small RNAs in ES is unknown. Using samples from a well-characterized ES cohort,(More)
Innate immune sensing of viral infection results in type I interferon (IFN) production and inflammasome activation. Type I IFNs, primarily IFN-α and IFN-β, are produced by all cell types upon virus infection and promote an antiviral state in surrounding cells by inducing the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. Type I IFN production is mediated by Toll-like(More)
Viremic controllers and elite controllers/suppressors maintain control over HIV-1 replication. Some studies have suggested that control is a result of infection with a defective viral strain, while others suggested host immune factors have a key role. Here we document two HIV-1 transmission pairs: one consisting of a patient with progressive disease and an(More)
Elite suppressors or controllers (ES) are HIV-1 infected patients who maintain undetectable viral loads without treatment. While HLA-B*57-positive ES are usually infected with virus that is unmutated at CTL epitopes, a single, dominant variant containing CTL escape mutations is typically seen in plasma during chronic infection. We describe an ES who(More)
BACKGROUND While initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during primary HIV-1 infection occasionally results in transient control of viral replication after treatment interruption, the vast majority of patients eventually experience a rebound in plasma viremia. RESULTS Here we report a case of a patient who was started on HAART during(More)
BACKGROUND Viral suppression and viral breakthrough impact the humoral immune response to HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of viral suppression and viral breakthrough on results obtained with two cross-sectional HIV incidence assays. METHODS All samples were collected from adults in the US who were HIV infected for >2 years. Samples were tested with(More)
Among HIV-infected individuals, co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with faster progression to AIDS. We investigated the hypothesis that M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis (Mtb complex) could enhance susceptibility of CD4+ cells to HIV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from healthy donors were stimulated(More)
Elite controllers or suppressors have the remarkable capacity to maintain HIV-1 plasma RNA levels below the limit of detection of clinical assays (<50 copies/mL) without therapy and have a lower frequency of latently infected cells compared to chronic progressors. While it is unclear how this reduced seeding of the reservoir is achieved, it is possible that(More)