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Familiarity is a pervasive memory phenomenon that occurs in its most basic form when someone recognizes a repeated stimulus without recollecting other aspects of the requisite prior learning episode. Theoretical controversy currently abounds with respect to both the cognitive and neural characteristics of familiarity. Here, we show that the extant data,(More)
Contradicting the common assumption that accurate recognition reflects explicit-memory processing, we provide evidence for recognition lacking two hallmark explicit-memory features: awareness of memory retrieval and facilitation by attentive encoding. Kaleidoscope images were encoded in conjunction with an attentional diversion and were subsequently(More)
During episodic recognition tests, meaningful stimuli such as words can engender both conscious retrieval (explicit memory) and facilitated access to meaning that is distinct from the awareness of remembering (conceptual implicit memory). Neuroimaging investigations of one type of memory are frequently subject to the confounding influence of the other type(More)
Contemporary memory theories often distinguish between contextual recollection and acontextual familiarity as two fundamentally different types of recognition memory. It is currently unclear whether recollection and familiarity are supported by two correspondingly distinct retrieval mechanisms, or whether the same type of retrieval processing supports both(More)
Implicit memory and explicit memory are fundamentally different manifestations of memory storage in the brain. Yet, conceptual fluency driven by previous experience could theoretically be responsible for both conceptual implicit memory and aspects of explicit memory. For example, contemplating the meaning of a word might serve to speed subsequent processing(More)
A comprehensive understanding of human memory requires cognitive and neural descriptions of memory processes along with a conception of how memory processing drives behavioral responses and subjective experiences. One serious challenge to this endeavor is that an individual memory process is typically operative within a mix of other contemporaneous memory(More)
The "F" in FN400 denotes a more frontal scalp distribution relative to the morphologically similar N400 component-a distinction consistent with the hypothesized distinct roles of FN400 in familiarity memory versus N400 in language. However, no direct comparisons have substantiated these assumed dissimilarities. To this end, we manipulated short-term(More)
Effective exploratory behaviors involve continuous updating of sensory sampling to optimize the efficacy of information gathering. Despite some work on this issue in animals, little information exists regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms for this sort of behavioral optimization in humans. Here we examined a visual exploration phenomenon that(More)
A single session of exposure therapy can eliminate recalcitrant and disabling fear of phobogenic objects or situations. We studied neural mechanisms of this remarkable outcome by monitoring changes in brain activity as a result of successful 2-h treatment. Before treatment, phobogenic images excited activity in a network of regions, including amygdala,(More)
Memory retrieval can involve activity in the same sensory cortical regions involved in perception of the original event, and this neural "reactivation" has been suggested as an important mechanism of memory retrieval. However, it is still unclear if fragments of experience other than sensory information are retained and later reactivated during retrieval.(More)