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No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a(More)
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic progressive destructive disease. Currently available instruments measure disease activity at a specific point in time. An instrument to measure cumulative structural damage to the bowel, which may predict long-term disability, is needed. The aim of this article is to outline the methods to develop an instrument that can(More)
It is shown that a spin-echo sequence may be used to acquire T(2)-weighted, high-resolution, high-SNR sections at quasi-real-time frame rates for interactive, diagnostic imaging. A single-shot fast spin-echo sequence was designed which employs driven equilibrium to realign transverse magnetization remaining at the final spin echo. Driven equilibrium is(More)
In spiral computed tomography (CT), dose is always inversely proportional to pitch. However, the relationship between noise and pitch (and hence noise and dose) depends on the scanner type (single vs multi-detector row) and reconstruction mode (cardiac vs noncardiac). In single detector row spiral CT, noise is independent of pitch. Conversely, in noncardiac(More)
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to determine the natural history of small (≤ 2 cm) simple pancreatic cystic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review was performed of patients with long-term follow-up who were diagnosed with small (≤ 2 cm) simple pancreatic cysts on sonography or CT from 1985 to 1996. Long-term surveillance included(More)
OBJECTIVE The risk of invasive colorectal cancer in colorectal polyps correlates with lesion size. Our purpose was to define the most accurate methods for measuring polyp size at CT colonography (CTC) using three models of workstations and multiple observers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six reviewers measured 24 unique polyps of known size (5, 7, 10, and 12(More)
Peroxidized low-density lipoprotein (p-LDL) has been previously demonstrated to be preferentially cytotoxic to certain malignant cells compared to normal cells of the same type. We present evidence that p-LDL is at least partially taken up through the LDL receptor and that it becomes localized in lysosomes. The integrity of lysosomes of p-LDL-treated cells(More)
BACKGROUND While pelvic floor dysfunction may manifest with bladder or bowel symptoms, the relationship between functional defecatory disorders and dysfunctional voiding is unclear. Our hypothesis was that patients with defecatory disorders have generalized pelvic floor dysfunction, manifesting as dysfunctional urinary voiding. METHODS Voiding was(More)
Biochemical indicators of renal dysfunction have been compared with liver and kidney cadmium levels measured by neutron activation analysis in a group of 37 cadmium smelters. Higher than normal concentrations of cadmium in the liver reflect past exposure; they were associated with evidence of renal dysfunction in workers exposed to cadmium for more than 10(More)
BACKGROUND Inter-observer variability limits the reproducibility of pelvic floor motion measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our aim was to develop a semi-automated program measuring pelvic floor motion in a reproducible and refined manner. METHODS Pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction (squeeze) and rectal evacuation were(More)