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We announce the release of the fourth version of MEGA software, which expands on the existing facilities for editing DNA sequence data from autosequencers, mining Web-databases, performing automatic and manual sequence alignment, analyzing sequence alignments to estimate evolutionary distances, inferring phylogenetic trees, and testing evolutionary(More)
The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software is a desktop application designed for comparative analysis of homologous gene sequences either from multigene families or from different species with a special emphasis on inferring evolutionary relationships and patterns of DNA and protein evolution. In addition to the tools for statistical(More)
Biologists and other scientists routinely need to know times of divergence between species and to construct phylogenies calibrated to time (timetrees). Published studies reporting time estimates from molecular data have been increasing rapidly, but the data have been largely inaccessible to the greater community of scientists because of their complexity.(More)
UNLABELLED Biologists and other scientists routinely need to know times of divergence between species and to construct phylogenies calibrated to time (timetrees). Published studies reporting time estimates from molecular data have been increasing rapidly, but the data have been largely inaccessible to the greater community of scientists because of their(More)
Finding new uses for existing drugs, or drug repositioning, has been used as a strategy for decades to get drugs to more patients. As the ability to measure molecules in high-throughput ways has improved over the past decade, it is logical that such data might be useful for enabling drug repositioning through computational methods. Many computational(More)
Modern technologies have made the sequencing of personal genomes routine. They have revealed thousands of nonsynonymous (amino acid altering) single nucleotide variants (nSNVs) of protein-coding DNA per genome. What do these variants foretell about an individual's predisposition to diseases? The experimental technologies required to carry out such(More)
BACKGROUND Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were often selected for validation based on their functional annotation, which was inadequate and biased. We propose to use the more than 200,000 microarray studies in the Gene Expression Omnibus to systematically prioritize candidate SNPs from GWASs. (More)
The panoply of microorganisms and other species present in our environment influence human health and disease, especially in cities, but have not been profiled with metagenomics at a city-wide scale. We sequenced DNA from surfaces across the entire New York City (NYC) subway system, the Gowanus Canal, and public parks. Nearly half of the DNA (48%) does not(More)