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In 1984-1985 Medicare data, hospital cost per case was strongly correlated both with the percentage of patients admitted as transfers (r = 0.314, P less than 0.0001) and the hospital's referral index (r = 0.512; P less than 0.0001). These relationships remained highly significant after correcting for the hospital wage level, case mix index, teaching(More)
BACKGROUND Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a condition associated with decreased estrogenization of the vaginal tissue, which can result in vaginal dryness, irritation, and dyspareunia. This study quantified the burden associated with VVA symptoms across the United States and Europe and compared this burden with other chronic conditions. METHODS Data were(More)
In January 1995, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) adopted a voluntary set of principles to provide guidance for its member companies on the conduct and evaluation of pharmacoeconomic research. The principles were prepared by a working group of pharmacoeconomic scientists from the PhRMA Task Force on the Economic Evaluation of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) pairing bazedoxifene (BZA) with conjugated estrogens (CE) on sexual function and quality of life in postmenopausal women. METHODS In this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, postmenopausal, non-hysterectomized women (n = 652) with symptoms of moderate to severe(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in work patterns and practice characteristics of male and female physicians using data from the American Medical Association's Twelfth Periodic Survey of Physicians conducted in 1978. Following are some of the major findings: Male physicians were more likely than female physicians to work either in the(More)
OBJECTIVE First, to identify treatment satisfaction thresholds for interpreting treatment-related changes in vasomotor symptoms, and, second, to determine the doses of desvenlafaxine (DVS) (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) that effectively provide relief of vasomotor symptoms considered important by menopausal women. DESIGN Efficacy and treatment(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens (BZA/CE) on sleep parameters and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). METHODS This was a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Postmenopausal women with an intact uterus and experiencing >or=7 moderate-to-severe hot flushes daily were randomized to BZA(More)
During this study, we investigated the extent to which diagnosis-related group (DRG) relative weights based exclusively on charge data differ from DRG weights constructed according to the methodology used in deriving the original relative weights for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). The PPS operating cost weights were based on a combination of(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare medical condition burden, healthcare resource use, and healthcare costs of household members (HHMs) of individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with those of HHMs of matched individuals without AD. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study based on administrative claims data collected between January 1, 2007, and December 31,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance (in terms of responsiveness to change, associations with other criterion standards, and indicators of Alzheimer's disease [AD] severity) of a quality-of-life measure (Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease [QOL-AD]) and a health utility measure (Health Utilities Index Mark 3 [HUI-3]) from two recently completed clinical(More)