Joel A Cassel

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The synthesis and biological test results of a series of enkephalin analogues incorporating the lanthionine modification are presented. The syntheses of four monosulfide-bridged analogues of enkephalins, Tyr-c[D-Ala(L)-Gly-Phe-D-Ala(L)]-OH (1a), Tyr-c[D-Val(L)-Gly-Phe-D-Ala(L)]-OH (1b), Tyr-c[D-Ala(L)-Gly-Phe-Ala(L)]-OH (1c), and(More)
Alvimopan is a novel peripheral micro opioid antagonist in clinical development for the management of post-operative ileus and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. We hypothesized that the long duration of action of alvimopan might be related to a slower dissociation rate from the micro opioid receptor compared to other shorter acting antagonists. The(More)
Selective delta opioid receptor agonists are promising potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various types of pain conditions. A spirocyclic derivative was identified as a promising hit through screening. Subsequent lead optimization identified compound 20 (ADL5859) as a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable delta agonist. Compound 20 was(More)
The antihyperalgesic properties of the opiate antidiarrheal agent loperamide (ADL 2-1294) were investigated in a variety of inflammatory pain models in rodents. Loperamide exhibited potent affinity and selectivity for the cloned micro (Ki = 3 nM) compared with the delta (Ki = 48 nM) and kappa (Ki = 1156 nM) human opioid receptors. Loperamide potently(More)
Loperamide and three of its analogs were evaluated for their ability to inhibit binding to cloned human opioid receptor subtypes and to produce antipruritus and antinociception following local s.c. administration to rodents. All four compounds were fully efficacious agonists with affinities of 2 to 4 nM for the cloned human mu opioid receptor. Local s.c.(More)
Selective, nonpeptidic delta opioid receptor agonists have been the subject of great interest as potential novel analgesic agents. The discoveries of BW373U86 (1) and SNC80 (2) contributed to the rapid expansion of research in this field. However, poor drug-like properties and low therapeutic indices have prevented clinical evaluation of these agents. Doses(More)
Some kappa opioid receptor agonists of the arylacetamide class, for example, ICI 199441 (1), were found to strongly inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) (1: CYP2D6 IC50=26 nM). Certain analogs bearing a substituted sulfonylamino group, for example, 13, were discovered to have significantly reduced CYP2D6 inhibitory activity (13: CYP2D6(More)
A new class of kappa-opioid receptor agonists is described. The design of these agents was based upon energy minimization and structural overlay studies of the generic azepin-2-one structure 3 with the crystal structure of arylacetamide kappa agonist 1, ICI 199441. The most active compound identified was ligand 4a (K(i)=0.34 nM), which demonstrated potent(More)