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Alvimopan is a novel peripheral micro opioid antagonist in clinical development for the management of post-operative ileus and opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. We hypothesized that the long duration of action of alvimopan might be related to a slower dissociation rate from the micro opioid receptor compared to other shorter acting antagonists. The(More)
Selective delta opioid receptor agonists are promising potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various types of pain conditions. A spirocyclic derivative was identified as a promising hit through screening. Subsequent lead optimization identified compound 20 (ADL5859) as a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable delta agonist. Compound 20 was(More)
The antihyperalgesic properties of the opiate antidiarrheal agent loperamide (ADL 2-1294) were investigated in a variety of inflammatory pain models in rodents. Loperamide exhibited potent affinity and selectivity for the cloned micro (Ki = 3 nM) compared with the delta (Ki = 48 nM) and kappa (Ki = 1156 nM) human opioid receptors. Loperamide potently(More)
Loperamide and three of its analogs were evaluated for their ability to inhibit binding to cloned human opioid receptor subtypes and to produce antipruritus and antinociception following local s.c. administration to rodents. All four compounds were fully efficacious agonists with affinities of 2 to 4 nM for the cloned human mu opioid receptor. Local s.c.(More)
The synthesis and biological test results of a series of enkephalin analogues incorporating the lanthionine modification are presented. The syntheses of four monosulfide-bridged analogues of enkephalins, Tyr-c[D-Ala(L)-Gly-Phe-D-Ala(L)]-OH (1a), Tyr-c[D-Val(L)-Gly-Phe-D-Ala(L)]-OH (1b), Tyr-c[D-Ala(L)-Gly-Phe-Ala(L)]-OH (1c), and(More)
A proline scan at positions 2 and 3 of the opioid peptide dynorphin A(1-11)-NH(2) led to the discovery of the analogue [Pro(3)]Dyn A(1-11)-NH(2). This analogue possesses high affinity and selectivity for the kappa opioid receptor (K(i)(kappa) = 2.7 nM, K(i) ratio kappa/micro/delta = 1/2110/3260). The gain in selectivity is achieved through an overall(More)
Endomorphins were recently identified as endogenous ligands with high selectivity for mu opioid receptors. We have characterized the ability of endomorphins to bind to and functionally activate the cloned human mu opioid receptor. Both endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 exhibited binding selectivity for the mu opioid receptor over the delta and kappa opioid(More)
A series of 3-substituted analogs (3) of the parent kappa agonist, 1, were prepared to limit access to the central nervous system. With the exception of compound 3j, all other compounds bound to the human kappa opioid receptor with high affinity (K(i)=0.31-9.5 nM) and were selective for kappa over mu and delta opioid receptors. Compounds 3c, d, and 3g-i(More)
Selective, nonpeptidic delta opioid receptor agonists have been the subject of great interest as potential novel analgesic agents. The discoveries of BW373U86 (1) and SNC80 (2) contributed to the rapid expansion of research in this field. However, poor drug-like properties and low therapeutic indices have prevented clinical evaluation of these agents. Doses(More)