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Clarinettists combine non-standard fingerings with particular vocal tract configurations to achieve pitch bending, i.e., sounding pitches that can deviate substantially from those of standard fingerings. Impedance spectra were measured in the mouth of expert clarinettists while they played normally and during pitch bending, using a measurement head(More)
Instruments in the #ute family, unlike most wind instruments, are played with the input of the instrument open to the atmosphere. Consequently, they operate at minima in the spectrum of acoustic input impedance. Detailed examination of these minima requires measurements with large dynamic range, which is why the #ute has not been hitherto investigated in(More)
Motion of the keys was measured in a transverse flute while beginner, amateur, and professional flutists played a range of exercises. The time taken for a key to open or close was typically 10 ms when pushed by a finger or 16 ms when moved by a spring. Because the opening and closing of keys will never be exactly simultaneous, transitions between notes that(More)
The vocal tract resonances of trained soprano singers were measured while they sang a range of vowels softly at different pitches. The measurements were made by broad band acoustic excitation at the mouth, which allowed the resonances of the tract to be measured simultaneously with and independently from the harmonics of the voice. At low pitch, when the(More)
The didjeridu, or yidaki, is a simple tube about 1.5 m long, played with the lips, as in a tuba, but mostly producing just a tonal, rhythmic drone sound. The acoustic impedance spectra of performers' vocal tracts were measured while they played and compared with the radiated sound spectra. When the tongue is close to the hard palate, the vocal tract(More)
IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and(More)
Acousticians have long debated whether and how the resonances of the vocal tract are involved in the playing of clarinet and saxophone. We measured the resonances of saxophonists' vocal tracts directly while they played. Over most of the instrument's range, there is no simple relation between tract resonances and the note played, and the tract resonances(More)