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Motion of the keys was measured in a transverse flute while beginner, amateur, and professional flutists played a range of exercises. The time taken for a key to open or close was typically 10 ms when pushed by a finger or 16 ms when moved by a spring. Because the opening and closing of keys will never be exactly simultaneous, transitions between notes that(More)
IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and(More)
The vocal tract resonances of trained soprano singers were measured while they sang a range of vowels softly at different pitches. The measurements were made by broad band acoustic excitation at the mouth, which allowed the resonances of the tract to be measured simultaneously with and independently from the harmonics of the voice. At low pitch, when the(More)
The frequencies of vocal tract resonances estimated using whisper and creak phonations are compared with those in normal phonation for subjects who produced pairs of these phonations in the same vocal gesture. Peaks in the spectral envelope were used to measure the frequencies of the first four resonances (R1-R4) for the non-periodic phonations, and(More)
The first two vocal tract resonances (R1 and R2) of 22 classically trained sopranos, altos, tenors, and baritones were measured while they sang four different vowels over their normal pitch range. The resonances of the tract and the harmonics of the voice were measured simultaneously by injecting a broadband acoustic current into the tract at their mouth.(More)
Are the characteristic timbre and loudness of Bulgarian women's singing related to tuning of resonances of the vocal tract? We studied an Australian female singer, who practises and teaches Bulgarian singing technique. Two different vocal qualities of this style were studied. The louder teshka is characterized by a sonorous voice production. The less loud(More)
Twelve sopranos with different levels of expertise (4 nonexperts, 4 advanced, 4 professionals) sustained pitches from A4 ( approximately 440 Hz) to their highest pitch (ranging from C6 to D7, i.e., from approximately 1000 to 2300 Hz). The frequencies of their first two vocal tract resonances (R1 and R2) were measured by broadband excitation at the mouth and(More)
The Australian didgeridoo (or yidaki in the Yolngu language of northern Australia) is a simple musical instrument that, at the lips of an experienced player, is capable of a spectacular variety of timbres--considerably greater than those that can be coaxed from orchestral instruments, for example. To understand this phenomenon, we simultaneously measured(More)
In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical(More)