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We describe an approach to manipulate and measure mechanical interactions between cells and their underlying substrates by using microfabricated arrays of elastomeric, microneedle-like posts. By controlling the geometry of the posts, we varied the compliance of the substrate while holding other surface properties constant. Cells attached to, spread across,(More)
Mechanical forces play an important role in the organization, growth, maturation, and function of living tissues. At the cellular level, many of the biological responses to external forces originate at two types of specialized microscale structures: focal adhesions that link cells to their surrounding extracellular matrix and adherens junctions that link(More)
This paper describes the immobilization of ten proteins and two low-molecular-weight ligands on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold generated from the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated thiol 1 (HS(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)3OH) (chi(1) = 1.0-0.0) and the longer, carboxylic acid-terminated thiol2(HS(CH2)11(OCH2-CH2)6OCH2CO2H) (chi(2) =(More)
Past studies using micropatterned substrates coated with adhesive islands of extracellular matrix revealed that capillary endothelial cells can be geometrically switched between growth and apoptosis. Endothelial cells cultured on single islands larger than 1500 microm2 spread and progressed through the cell cycle, whereas cells restricted to areas less than(More)
This paper describes a convenient methodology for patterning substrates for cell culture that allows the positions and dimensions of attached cells to be controlled. The method uses self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of terminally substituted alkanethiolates (R(CH2)11-15S-) adsorbed on optically transparent films of gold or silver to control the properties of(More)
Adherent cells are strongly influenced by the mechanical aspects of biomaterials, but little is known about the cellular effects of spatial variations in these properties. This work describes a novel method to produce polymeric cell culture surfaces containing micrometer-scale regions of variable stiffness. Substrates made of acrylamide or(More)
This Communication describes the use of patterned elastomeric stamps to mold, release, and stack hydrogels into three-dimensional microstructures. Molding of gels against stamps derivatized by a hexa(ethylene glycol)-terminated self-assembled monolayer or by an adsorbed monolayer of bovine serum albumin allowed the application of several soft lithographic(More)
This work describes the formation, perfusion, and maturation of three-dimensional microvascular tubes in vitro. These tubes consisted of confluent monolayers of human endothelial cells that lined open, cylindrical channels within collagen gels. Perivascular cells could be directly embedded within the gels or added after endothelial cells grew to confluence.(More)
This computational study analyzes how to design a drainage system for porous scaffolds so that the scaffolds can be vascularized and perfused without collapse of the vessel lumens. We postulate that vascular transmural pressure--the difference between lumenal and interstitial pressures--must exceed a threshold value to avoid collapse. Model geometries(More)
This paper describes a general procedure for the formation of hydrogels that contain microfluidic networks. In this procedure, micromolded meshes of gelatin served as sacrificial materials. Encapsulation of gelatin meshes in a hydrogel and subsequent melting and flushing of the gelatin left behind interconnected channels in the hydrogel. The channels were(More)