Learn More
Small bundles of frog skeletal muscle fibers were loaded with 305 mM K+ and 120 mM Cl-, and 42K+ tracer efflux and influx were measured as a function of external K+ concentration ([K+]o) at a resting potential of -2 mV. As [K+]o was lowered from 305 mM, efflux decreased along a markedly sigmoidal curve, reaching a constant nonzero value at low [K+]o. Influx(More)
Tissues can be soft like fat, which bears little stress, or stiff like bone, which sustains high stress, but whether there is a systematic relationship between tissue mechanics and differentiation is unknown. Here, proteomics analyses revealed that levels of the nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A scaled with tissue elasticity, E, as did levels of collagens in(More)
On rigid surfaces, the cytoskeleton of migrating cells is polarized, but tissue matrix is normally soft. We show that nonmuscle MIIB (myosin-IIB) is unpolarized in cells on soft matrix in 2D and also within soft 3D collagen, with rearward polarization of MIIB emerging only as cells migrate from soft to stiff matrix. Durotaxis is the tendency of cells to(More)
Cell migration through solid tissue often involves large contortions of the nucleus, but biological significance is largely unclear. The nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A varies both within and between cell types and was shown here to contribute to cell sorting and survival in migration through constraining micropores. Lamin-A proved rate-limiting in 3D(More)
Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells depend on asymmetric division and polarized motility processes that in other cell types are modulated by nonmuscle myosin-II (MII) forces and matrix mechanics. Here, mass spectrometry-calibrated intracellular flow cytometry of human hematopoiesis reveals MIIB to be a major isoform that is strongly polarized in(More)
Cell division, membrane rigidity, and strong adhesion to a rigid matrix are all promoted by myosin-II, and so multinucleated cells with distended membranes--typical of megakaryocytes (MKs)--seem predictable for low myosin activity in cells on soft matrices. Paradoxically, myosin mutations lead to defects in MKs and platelets. Here, reversible inhibition of(More)
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, as well as nucleated erythroblasts and megakaryocytes, reside preferentially in adult marrow microenvironments whereas other blood cells readily cross the endothelial barrier into the circulation. Because the nucleus is the largest organelle in blood cells, we hypothesized that (i) cell sorting across microporous(More)
In development and differentiation, morphological changes often accompany mechanical changes [1], but it is unclear whether or when cells in embryos sense tissue elasticity. The earliest embryo is uniformly pliable, while adult tissues vary widely in mechanics from soft brain and stiff heart to rigid bone [2]. However, cell sensitivity to microenvironment(More)
Tissue microenvironments are characterized not only in terms of chemical composition but also by collective properties such as stiffness, which influences the contractility of a cell, its adherent morphology, and even differentiation. The nucleoskeletal protein lamin-A,C increases with matrix stiffness, confers nuclear mechanical properties, and influences(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common, usually lethal disease with a median survival of only ~15 months. It has proven resistant in clinical trials to chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel that are highly effective in vitro, presumably because of impaired drug delivery across the tumor's blood-brain barrier (BBB). In an effort to increase(More)