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The underlying cause for the failure of immune checkpoint blockade is the overwhelming, persistent and multifocal immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. This is due to the absence of pre-existing antitumor Teff because of the action of important upstream immune checkpoints that recruit immunosuppressive cytokines (e.g., TGF-beta and IL-10) and(More)
Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality of HCC have increased three-fold in the United States over the past few years and the majority of patients present with advanced disease. Bavituximab is a novel chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that selectively blocks phosphatidylserine(More)
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