Learn More
Mucosal surfaces are a main entry point for pathogens and the principal sites of defense against infection. Both bacteria and phage are associated with this mucus. Here we show that phage-to-bacteria ratios were increased, relative to the adjacent environment, on all mucosal surfaces sampled, ranging from cnidarians to humans. In vitro studies of tissue(More)
Prokaryotes rely on a distant tubulin homolog, FtsZ, for assembling the cytokinetic ring essential for cell division, but are otherwise generally thought to lack tubulin-like polymers that participate in processes such as DNA segregation. Here we characterize a protein (TubZ) from the Bacillus thuringiensis virulence plasmid pBtoxis, which is a member of(More)
UNLABELLED The assembly of the cell division machinery at midcell is a critical step of cytokinesis. Many rod-shaped bacteria position septa using nucleoid occlusion, which prevents division over the chromosome, and the Min system, which prevents division near the poles. Here we examined the in vivo assembly of the Bacillus subtilis MinCD targeting proteins(More)
Tubulins are essential for the reproduction of many eukaryotic viruses, but historically, bacteriophage were assumed not to require a cytoskeleton. Here, we identify a tubulin-like protein, PhuZ, from bacteriophage 201φ2-1 and show that it forms filaments in vivo and in vitro. The PhuZ structure has a conserved tubulin fold, with an unusual, extended C(More)
Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and(More)
We localized the multicopy plasmid RK2 in Escherichia coli and found that the number of fluorescent foci observed in each cell was substantially less than the copy number of the plasmid, suggesting that many copies of RK2 are grouped into a few multiplasmid clusters. In minimal glucose media, the majority of cells had one or two foci, with a single focus(More)
During bacterial cannibalism, a differentiated subpopulation harvests nutrients from their genetically identical siblings to allow continued growth in nutrient-limited conditions. Hypothesis-driven imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was used to identify metabolites active in a Bacillus subtilis cannibalism system in which sporulating cells lyse nonsporulating(More)
Antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly grave threat to the public health. Of pressing concern, rapid spread of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative rods (GNR) is associated with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Current antibiotic susceptibility testing guiding patient management is performed in a(More)
Despite being essential for successful infection, the molecular cues involved in host recognition and genome transfer of viruses are not completely understood. Bacterial outer membrane proteins A and C co-purify in lipid vesicles with bacteriophage Sf6, implicating both outer membrane proteins as potential host receptors. We determined that outer membrane(More)
It is now clear that bacterial chromosomes rapidly separate in a manner independent of cell elongation, suggesting the existence of a mitotic apparatus in bacteria. Recent studies of bacterial cells reveal filamentous structures similar to the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, proteins that mediate polar chromosome anchoring during Bacillus subtilis sporulation, and(More)