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Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a spontaneous, X-linked, progressively fatal disease of dogs and is also a homologue of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Two-thirds of DMD patients carry detectable deletions in their dystrophin gene. The defect underlying the remaining one-third of DMD patients is undetermined. Analysis of the canine(More)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and the most severe of the muscular dystrophies in man. It is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait and is characterized by ongoing necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres with regeneration and eventually fibrosis and fatty infiltration. Although the gene and gene product which are defective in DMD have(More)
Clinicopathologic findings from two golden retriever dogs with an inherited, progressive, degenerative muscle disease that were studied until 27 and 40 months of age are described. Initial clinical signs included stilted gait and simultaneous advancement of their pelvic limbs. Further gait restriction and muscle hypertrophy eventually occurred. Serum(More)
Mutations in the dystrophin gene cause Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy in humans and syndromes in mice, dogs, and cats. Affected humans and dogs have progressive disease that leads primarily to muscle atrophy. Mdx mice progress through an initial phase of muscle hypertrophy followed by atrophy. Cats have persistent muscle hypertrophy. Hypertrophy in(More)
The degree of atrophy or hypertrophy of selected pelvic limb muscles was determined in the canine homologue of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. While most muscles were atrophied, the caudal and cranial sartorius were hypertrophied. Cranial sartorius weights were corrected for body weight and endomysial space to determine true muscle weights (g/kg; mean+/-SD) in(More)
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have tested the hypothesis that calpain and/or proteasome inhibition is beneficial in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, based largely on evidence that calpain and proteasome activities are enhanced in the mdx mouse. METHODS mRNA expression of ubiquitin-proteasome and calpain system components were determined using real-time(More)
Glucocorticoid use may provide short-term functional improvement in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We report functional and histopathologic changes following a 4-month course of daily oral prednisone in a canine model of DMD, termed golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD). Muscle extension forces in GRMD dogs treated daily with 1 and 2(More)
We have determined the molecular basis for skeletal myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in two male German short-haired pointer (GSHP) littermates. Analysis of skeletal muscle demonstrated a complete absence of dystrophin on Western blot analysis. PCR analysis of genomic DNA revealed a deletion encompassing the entire dystrophin gene. Molecular cytogenetic(More)
Contraction tension and kinetics of the peroneus longus muscle were studied in dogs with the Duchenne homologue, golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD), in advance of evaluating localized therapies such as myoblast transplantation. Absolute and both muscle- and body-weight-corrected twitch tension in GRMD dogs were low compared to normal litter mates at(More)
Tarsal joint forces were measured in dogs over 70 days following botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections. Three dogs were injected at motor end-plates located by electromyography (EMG), while 3 dogs were similarly injected, but without EMG guidance. Extension forces were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in limbs injected at motor end-plates than in(More)