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Pre-existing neutralizing antibody provides the first line of defence against pathogens in general. For influenza virus, annual vaccinations are given to maintain protective levels of antibody against the currently circulating strains. Here we report that after booster vaccination there was a rapid and robust influenza-specific IgG+ antibody-secreting(More)
The increasing global prevalence of nephrolithiasis continues to burden the healthcare delivery systems of industrialized nations and exact a disproportionate humanitarian toll on populations of the developing world (1). In the United States alone, the prevalence of nephrolithiasis is nearly twice the rate reported in the 1960s (2-5). The subsequent rise in(More)
Neural grafting is a potential strategy to help restore auditory function following loss of spiral ganglion cells. As a first step towards the reconstruction of a neural pathway from the cochlea to the brainstem, we have examined the survival of fetal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons allografted into the cochlea of adult guinea pigs. In some animals(More)
PURPOSE Calyceal selection for percutaneous renal access is critical for safe, effective performance of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Available anatomical evidence is contradictory and incomplete. We present detailed renal calyceal anatomy obtained from in vivo 3-dimentional computerized tomography renderings. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 60(More)
Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,(More)
A random sample of new books for sale on Amazon.com shows more books for sale from the 1880's than the 1980's. Why? This paper presents new data on how copyright stifles the reappearance of works. First, a random sample of more than 2000 new books for sale on Amazon.com is analyzed along with a random sample of almost 2000 songs available on new DVD's.(More)
OBJECTIVES To engage with the experiential phenomena of men's self-harm, to get a sense of its 'feel', its character, and to relate these things in a useful and authentic way. DESIGN Qualitative in-depth interview study with design input from service users' groups. METHOD Hermeneutic phenomenology. Two interviews with each of four participants in their(More)
Ectopic calcification is a driving force for a variety of diseases, including kidney stones and atherosclerosis, but initiating factors remain largely unknown. Given its importance in seemingly divergent disease processes, identifying fundamental principal actors for ectopic calcification may have broad translational significance. Here we establish a(More)
Backup Generators (BUGS): The Next Smart Grid Peak Resource v1.0 ii DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility(More)