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Pre-existing neutralizing antibody provides the first line of defence against pathogens in general. For influenza virus, annual vaccinations are given to maintain protective levels of antibody against the currently circulating strains. Here we report that after booster vaccination there was a rapid and robust influenza-specific IgG+ antibody-secreting(More)
The increasing global prevalence of nephrolithiasis continues to burden the healthcare delivery systems of industrialized nations and exact a disproportionate humanitarian toll on populations of the developing world (1). In the United States alone, the prevalence of nephrolithiasis is nearly twice the rate reported in the 1960s (2-5). The subsequent rise in(More)
Recovery of upper limb movement control after stroke might be enhanced by repetitive goal-directed functional activities. Providing such activity is challenging in the presence of severe paresis. A possible new approach is based on the discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey cortical area F5, which are active both in observing and executing a movement.(More)
We have recently observed that exogenous sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK) can antagonize various forms of opiate analgesia and that the CCK receptor blocker proglumide potentiates morphine analgesia. These observations, plus the similarity in the distribution of CCK and opiate systems, suggest that endogenous CCK may act as a physiological opiate(More)
DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,(More)
Neural grafting is a potential strategy to help restore auditory function following loss of spiral ganglion cells. As a first step towards the reconstruction of a neural pathway from the cochlea to the brainstem, we have examined the survival of fetal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons allografted into the cochlea of adult guinea pigs. In some animals(More)
OBJECTIVES To engage with the experiential phenomena of men's self-harm, to get a sense of its 'feel', its character, and to relate these things in a useful and authentic way. DESIGN Qualitative in-depth interview study with design input from service users' groups. METHOD Hermeneutic phenomenology. Two interviews with each of four participants in their(More)
Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal(More)
Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,(More)
Cortical application of morphine (25, 100 and 400 micrograms) induced cortical spikes in a dose-related fashion and, at 400 micrograms, behavioral and electrographic seizures. These electrographic seizures were not opiate specific since this activity occurred undiminished in naltrexone-pretreated animals and was even potentiated in animals pretreated for 6(More)