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Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a large (150-kb) double-stranded DNA virus that forms latent infections in neuronal cells of the human peripheral nervous system. Previous work determined that the HSV-1 genome is found in an ordered nucleosomal structure during latent infection. However, during lytic infection, it was unclear whether viral DNA was in(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes are currently being considered for inclusion into subunit vaccines. Here we describe the characterization of five new CTL epitopes within EBV nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA3), confirming EBNA3 as a major target for CTL recognition.
Sequence analysis of a nearly full-length murine c-akt cDNA clone and comparison with v-akt revealed the following: (a) The entire coding region of c-akt is identical to that of v-akt with the exception of five G to A transitions that do not alter the reading frame. The 3' untranslated regions of v-akt and c-akt are also identical with the exception of(More)
A novel alphavirus was isolated from the louse Lepidophthirus macrorhini, collected from southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, on Macquarie Island, Australia. The virus displayed classic alphavirus ultrastructure and appeared to be serologically different from known Australasian alphaviruses. Nearly all Macquarie Island elephant seals tested had(More)
CD40 is a member of the TNF family of receptors that has been shown to play a crucial role in enhancing dendritic cell activity and fostering anti-tumor immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate the in vitro properties and in vivo efficacious activity of the CD40 agonist antibody, CP-870,893. CP-870,893 is a fully human, IgG2 antibody that selectively(More)
The epitopes recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are generated from cytosolic proteins by proteolytic processing. The nature of the influences exerted by the sequences flanking CTL epitopes on these processing events remains controversial. Here we show that each epitope within an artificial polyepitope protein containing nine minimal CD8+ CTL(More)
The use of synthetic peptides representing cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) epitopes for human vaccination requires the identification of a suitable adjuvant formulation. A single immunization with Montanide ISA720/tetanus toxoid/YPHFMPTNL protected mice against murine cytomegalovirus and induced epitope-specific CTL. Such formulations will find application in(More)
A human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) strain was isolated in a CD4+ T-lymphocyte culture established from a healthy seropositive Australian Aboriginal. This isolate, identified as HTLV-IMSHR-1, was detected by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies, by the presence of gag-encoded protein p24 in the culture supernatant, and by cocultivation(More)
Persistent alphavirus infections in synovial and neural tissues are believed to be associated with chronic arthritis and encephalitis, respectively, and represent likely targets for CD8+ alphabeta cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Here we show that the capsid protein is a dominant target for alphavirus-specific CTL in BALB/c mice and that capsid-specific CTL(More)
SerpinB2, also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2, is a major product of macrophages and is upregulated during many infections. Although SerpinB2 inhibits urokinase plasminogen activator in vitro, evidence that this represents its physiological role in vivo is not compelling. We have recently shown that SerpinB2-/-mice generate enhanced Th1(More)