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Durable suppression of HIV-1 replication requires the establishment of antiretroviral drug concentrations that exceed the susceptibility of the virus strain(s) infecting the patient. Minimum plasma drug concentrations (C(trough)) are correlated with response, but determination of target C(trough) values is hindered by a paucity of in vivo(More)
Accurate assessment of HER2 status is critical in determining appropriate therapy for breast cancer patients but the best HER2 testing methodology has yet to be defined. In this study, we compared quantitative HER2 expression by the HERmark™ Breast Cancer Assay (HERmark) with routine HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ(More)
BACKGROUND Only a portion of breast cancer patients currently selected for trastuzumab therapy respond. METHODS Using a novel assay (HERmark) to quantify total human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression, the authors examined outcomes in 102 trastuzumab-treated metastatic breast cancer patients previously assessed as immunohistochemistry(More)
PURPOSE p95HER2 is an NH(2)-terminally truncated form of HER2 that lacks the trastuzumab binding site and is therefore thought to confer resistance to trastuzumab treatment. In this report, we introduce a new antibody that has enabled the first direct quantitative measurement of p95HER2 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissues. We(More)
We report here the results of the analytical validation of assays that measure HER2 total protein (H2T) and HER2 homodimer (H2D) expression in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tumors as well as cell line controls. The assays are based on the VeraTag technology platform and are commercially available through a central CAP-accredited(More)
BACKGROUND It is unknown how a very high tumor total HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) content (H2T) influences outcome in early breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS H2T was measured using a novel quantitative assay (HERmark(®)) from formalin-fixed tumor tissue of 899 women who participated(More)
BACKGROUND Many treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients who have limited therapeutic options for complete viral suppression continue to receive a partially suppressive treatment regimen pending the availability of at least 2 new antiretroviral drugs. The major risk of this approach is ongoing viral evolution and the loss of future drug options. (More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of HIV coreceptor tropism (CRT) on the relative risk of progression to a composite outcome of CD4 count < or =350 cells per microliter, treatment initiation, or death. METHODS CRT assays were performed after study closure in baseline samples obtained from enrollees in a prospectively monitored cohort of treatment-naive(More)
PURPOSE P95HER2 (p95) is a truncated form of the HER2, which lacks the trastuzumab-binding site and contains a hyperactive kinase domain. Previously, an optimal clinical cutoff of p95 expression for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was defined using a quantitative VeraTag assay (Monogram Biosciences) in a training set of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2+ breast cancer are at particularly high risk for brain metastases; however, the biological basis is not fully understood. Using a novel HER-2 assay, we investigated the correlation between quantitative HER-2 expression in primary breast cancers and the time to brain metastasis (TTBM) in(More)