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A virus isolated from an aborted equine fetus was determined to be antigenically distinct from several other strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) by use of a neutralization assay with a large panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The virus was readily neutralized by polyclonal equine anti-EAV serum. Comparative nucleotide and amino acid sequence(More)
An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as(More)
Yamoa (ground bark of Funtumia elastica tree) is marketed and sold as a dietary supplement with anecdotal therapeutic effects in the treatment of asthma and hay fever. We determined that Yamoa and Yamoa-derived polysaccharides affected innate immunity, in part, by priming gammadelta T cells. Gene expression patterns in purified bovine gammadelta T cells and(More)
Gene expression profiles were compared in circulating bovine GD3.5+ (CD8-) and GD3.5- (predominantly CD8+) gammadelta T cells using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Approximately 20,000 SAGE tags were generated from each library. A comparison of the two libraries demonstrated 297 and 173 tags representing genes with 5-fold differential expression(More)
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is an endotheliotropic viral disease of horses caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV). Although there is only one serotype of EAV, there is marked variation in the virulence of different strains of the virus. The replication and cytopathogenicity of three well-characterized strains of EAV of different virulence to horses were(More)
Expression of E-selectin on activated endothelium is a critical initial step that leads to extravasation of leucocytes during inflammation, yet E-selectin is largely uncharacterized in several animal species including the horse. We have sequenced and compared E-selectin genes derived from activated cultures of purified equine (horse), cervid (black-tailed(More)
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, an apparently emerging disease of equids. In this study, the antibody response of horses to the structural proteins of EAV was evaluated using gradient-purified EAV virions and baculovirus-expressed recombinant EAV structural proteins (G(L), G(S), M, N) as antigens in a Western(More)
The persistently infected carrier stallion is the critical natural reservoir of equine arteritis virus (EAV), as venereal infection of mares frequently occurs after breeding to such stallions. Two Thoroughbred stallions that were infected during the 1984 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in central Kentucky subsequently became long-term EAV carriers. EAV(More)
Replicon particles derived from a vaccine strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus were used as vectors for expression in vivo of the major envelope proteins (G(L) and M) of equine arteritis virus (EAV), both individually and in heterodimer form (G(L)/M). The immunogenicity of the different replicons was evaluated in horses, as was their ability(More)
An avirulent, novel variant of equine arteritis virus (EAV; CA95G) was isolated from the semen of a persistently infected Standardbred stallion. The CA95G virus caused subclinical infection and seroconversion in susceptible horses, and virus was isolated only once from blood and nasal secretions collected from 6 experimentally infected horses. Sequence(More)