Learn More
An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as(More)
A virus isolated from an aborted equine fetus was determined to be antigenically distinct from several other strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) by use of a neutralization assay with a large panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The virus was readily neutralized by polyclonal equine anti-EAV serum. Comparative nucleotide and amino acid sequence(More)
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) causes a persistent infection of the reproductive tract of carrier stallions. The authors determined the complete genome sequences of viruses (CW96 and CW01) that were present 5 years apart in the semen of a carrier stallion (CW). The CW96 and CW01 viruses respectively had only 85.6 % and 85.7 % nucleotide identity to the(More)
Yamoa (ground bark of Funtumia elastica tree) is marketed and sold as a dietary supplement with anecdotal therapeutic effects in the treatment of asthma and hay fever. We determined that Yamoa and Yamoa-derived polysaccharides affected innate immunity, in part, by priming gammadelta T cells. Gene expression patterns in purified bovine gammadelta T cells and(More)
Gene expression profiles were compared in circulating bovine GD3.5+ (CD8-) and GD3.5- (predominantly CD8+) gammadelta T cells using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Approximately 20,000 SAGE tags were generated from each library. A comparison of the two libraries demonstrated 297 and 173 tags representing genes with 5-fold differential expression(More)
Gammadelta T cells are innate immune cells that participate in host responses against many pathogens and cancers. Recently, phosphoantigen-based drugs, capable of expanding gammadelta T cells in vivo, entered clinical trials with the goal of enhancing innate immune system functions. Potential shortcomings of these drugs include the induction of(More)
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is an endotheliotropic viral disease of horses caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV). Although there is only one serotype of EAV, there is marked variation in the virulence of different strains of the virus. The replication and cytopathogenicity of three well-characterized strains of EAV of different virulence to horses were(More)
The two major human gammadelta T cell subsets, Vdelta1 and Vdelta2, display differences in tissue tropism and agonist responses, but we have little insight into global differences that may exist at the gene expression level. This is due to the small numbers of these cells that can be obtained from healthy donors, which limit comprehensive, comparative gene(More)
Expression of E-selectin on activated endothelium is a critical initial step that leads to extravasation of leucocytes during inflammation, yet E-selectin is largely uncharacterized in several animal species including the horse. We have sequenced and compared E-selectin genes derived from activated cultures of purified equine (horse), cervid (black-tailed(More)
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis, an apparently emerging disease of equids. In this study, the antibody response of horses to the structural proteins of EAV was evaluated using gradient-purified EAV virions and baculovirus-expressed recombinant EAV structural proteins (G(L), G(S), M, N) as antigens in a Western(More)