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The availability of Rahman, and the virulent HM-1:IMSS strain of E. histolytica, provides a powerful tool for identifying virulence factors of E. histolytica. Here we report an attempt to identify potential virulence factors of E. histolytica by comparing the transcriptome of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. histolytica Rahman. With phenotypically defined(More)
The hormone calcitonin (CT) is primarily known for its pharmacologic action as an inhibitor of bone resorption, yet CT-deficient mice display increased bone formation. These findings raised the question about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of CT action. Here we show that either ubiquitous or osteoclast-specific inactivation of the murine CT(More)
Although Wnt signaling is considered a key regulatory pathway for bone formation, inactivation of β-catenin in osteoblasts does not affect their activity but rather causes increased osteoclastogenesis due to insufficient production of osteoprotegerin (Opg). By monitoring the expression pattern of all known genes encoding Wnt receptors in mouse tissues and(More)
Although Wnt signaling in osteoblasts is of critical importance for the regulation of bone remodeling, it is not yet known which specific Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are functionally relevant in this process. In this paper, we show that Fzd9 is induced upon osteoblast differentiation and that Fzd9(-/-) mice display low bone mass caused by impaired(More)
X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is a genetic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the PHEX gene, encoding a transmembrane endopeptidase expressed in osteoblasts. Since several experiments involving Phex-deficient Hyp mice have demonstrated that an increased expression of Fgf23 in osteoblasts is causative for the renal phosphate loss(More)
WNT5A has recently been implicated in inflammatory processes, but its role as a bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)-derived mediator of joint inflammation in arthritis is unclear. Here, we investigated whether inflammatory stimuli induce WNT5A in BMSC to control inflammatory responses. WNT5A levels were determined in human BMSC after stimulation with(More)
Since the hematopoetic system is located within the bone marrow, it is not surprising that recent evidence has demonstrated the existence of molecular interactions between bone and immune cells. While interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-18, two cytokines of the IL-1 family, have been shown to regulate differentiation and activity of bone cells, the role of IL-33,(More)
Stable Fos expression in the osteoblast lineage results in the development of osteosarcomas (OS) in mice, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a genetic system in which Fos expression can be induced in osteoblasts in a doxycycline-dependent manner and through subsequent RNA sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis, we were able to(More)
Wnt signalling is a key pathway controlling bone formation in mice and humans. One of the regulators of this pathway is Dkk1, which antagonizes Wnt signalling through the formation of a ternary complex with the transmembrane receptors Krm1/2 and Lrp5/6, thereby blocking the induction of Wnt signalling by the latter ones. Here we show that Kremen-2 (Krm2) is(More)
Skeletal metastases are a frequent complication of prostate, breast and lung cancer, and the interactions of tumor cells with bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts have been suggested to play critical roles in disease progression. We have previously shown that treatment of primary murine osteoblasts with conditioned medium of the human(More)