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Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient as the biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine (ACh) and phospholipids. Under resting conditions, the intracellular accumulation of Ch (above 10-fold), which is positively charged, is governed by the membrane potential and follows the Nernst equation. Accordingly, in synaptosomes from adult rats during depolarization,(More)
High-dose nicotinamide (1000 mg/kg) leads to a minor increase of plasma choline but to a major increase of the choline concentrations in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the brain. In the hippocampus, the nicotinamide-induced increase in choline was associated with an increase in the release of acetylcholine under stimulated conditions. In young rats,(More)
Central cholinergic neurotransmission was studied in learning-impaired transgenic mice expressing human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE-Tg). Total catalytic activity of AChE was approximately twofold higher in synaptosomes from hippocampus, striatum and cortex of hAChE-Tg mice as compared with controls (FVB/N mice). Extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in(More)
Using the microdialysis technique and sensitive HPLC procedures for the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) and ethanol, we investigated the release of ACh in rat hippocampus after acute ethanol administration. Systemic administration of ethanol (0.8 and 2.4 g/kg i.p.) led to peak ethanol concentrations of 21 and 42 mM in the hippocampus, respectively. The(More)
Striatal cholinergic interneurons are stimulated by glutamatergic inputs from thalamus and cortex via NMDA receptors. The present microdialysis study was designed to characterize the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this process and to identify the NO synthase (NOS) isoform responsible for this effect. For this purpose, we studied the effects of NMDA and(More)
Agonist exposure of many G protein-coupled receptors induces a rapid receptor phosphorylation and uncoupling from G proteins. Resensitization of these desensitized receptors requires endocytosis and subsequent dephosphorylation. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, the rat mu-opioid receptor (MOR1, also termed MOP) was found to be associated with phospholipase(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity was determined in rat hippocampal slices between postnatal days 3 and 35. After birth, basal PLD activity was low and, within 2 weeks, increased to reach a plateau that was maintained up to the adult age. Likewise the response to glutamate developed postnatally to reach a maximum at day 8, but then faded rapidly and was almost(More)
Despite successful use of the ketogenic diet (KD) for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, its mechanism of action is unclear. After KD-feeding, increased plasma D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels appear to be important for protection against seizures. We hypothesized that the KD leads to metabolic changes in the brain, which are reflected in the(More)
Ten years after the isoforms of mammalian phospholipase D (PLD), PLD1 and 2, were cloned, their roles in the brain remain speculative but several lines of evidence now implicate these enzymes in basic cell functions such as vesicular trafficking as well as in brain development. Many mitogenic factors, including neurotransmitters and growth factors, activate(More)
Neuroprotective properties of bilobalide, a specific constituent of Ginkgo extracts, were tested in a mouse model of stroke. After 24h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), bilobalide reduced infarct areas in the core region (striatum) by 40-50% when given at 10mg/kg 1h prior to MCAO. Neuroprotection was also observed at lower doses, or when the drug(More)