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In the central nervous system, choline is an essential precursor of choline-containing phospholipids in neurons and glial cells and of acetylcholine in cholinergic neurons. In order to study choline transport and metabolism in the brain, we developed a comprehensive methodical procedure for the analysis of choline and its major metabolites which involves a(More)
Ten years after the isoforms of mammalian phospholipase D (PLD), PLD1 and 2, were cloned, their roles in the brain remain speculative but several lines of evidence now implicate these enzymes in basic cell functions such as vesicular trafficking as well as in brain development. Many mitogenic factors, including neurotransmitters and growth factors, activate(More)
High-dose nicotinamide (1000 mg/kg) leads to a minor increase of plasma choline but to a major increase of the choline concentrations in the intra- and extracellular spaces of the brain. In the hippocampus, the nicotinamide-induced increase in choline was associated with an increase in the release of acetylcholine under stimulated conditions. In young rats,(More)
  • J Klein
  • 2000
Breakdown of cellular membranes is a characteristic feature of neuronal degeneration in acute (stroke) and chronic (senile dementia) neurological disorders. The present review summarizes recent experimental and clinical work which concentrated on changes of choline-containing phospholipids as indicators of neuronal membrane breakdown. Experimental studies(More)
The concentrations of free choline in blood plasma from a peripheral artery and from the transverse sinus, in the CSF, and in total brain homogenate, have been measured in untreated rats and in rats after acute intraperitoneal administration of choline chloride. In untreated rats, the arteriovenous difference of brain choline was related to the arterial(More)
Using the microdialysis technique and sensitive HPLC procedures for the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) and ethanol, we investigated the release of ACh in rat hippocampus after acute ethanol administration. Systemic administration of ethanol (0.8 and 2.4 g/kg i.p.) led to peak ethanol concentrations of 21 and 42 mM in the hippocampus, respectively. The(More)
Central cholinergic neurotransmission was studied in learning-impaired transgenic mice expressing human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE-Tg). Total catalytic activity of AChE was approximately twofold higher in synaptosomes from hippocampus, striatum and cortex of hAChE-Tg mice as compared with controls (FVB/N mice). Extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) levels in(More)
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is a popular model in experimental stroke research and causes prominent ischemic damage in the forebrain. To characterize metabolic changes induced by MCAO, we have induced permanent MCAO in mice that were implanted with a microdialysis probe in either striatum or hippocampus. Immediately after the onset of ischemia,(More)
The present study analyses, comparatively, the kinetics of free choline in the brain of rats during dietary and pharmacological manipulations. Low-choline diet halved the choline plasma level but did not cause significant changes of CSF choline. High-choline diet, hypoxia and treatment with nicotinamide increased brain choline availability through a central(More)