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NMDA receptors play important roles in learning and memory and in sculpting neural connections during development. After the period of peak cortical plasticity, NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs (NMDAR EPSCs) decrease in duration. A likely mechanism for this change in NMDA receptor properties is the molecular alteration of NMDA receptor structure by regulation(More)
BACKGROUND A pathological hallmark of most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are intracellular aggregates of the protein TDP-43. The pathophysiological relevance of TDP-43 is underlined by familial ALS cases caused by TDP-43 mutations. TDP-43 is involved in processing of both coding RNAs and microRNAs, which are key epigenetic regulators of(More)
The susceptibility of cortical networks to use-dependent modifications declines with age (critical period) and this decline of neuronal plasticity during development is paralleled by the shortening of NMDA receptor EPSCs. We showed previously in the somatosensory cortex that the shortening of NMDA receptor kinetics correlates with a(More)
Axonal degeneration is one of the earliest features of Parkinson's disease pathology, which is followed by neuronal death in the substantia nigra and other parts of the brain. Inhibition of axonal degeneration combined with cellular neuroprotection therefore seem key to targeting an early stage in Parkinson's disease progression. Based on our previous(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative syndrome hallmarked by adult-onset loss of motor neurons. We performed exome sequencing of 252 familial ALS (fALS) and 827 control individuals. Gene-based rare variant analysis identified an exome-wide significant enrichment of eight loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in TBK1(More)
Extracellular α-Synuclein has been implicated in interneuronal propagation of disease pathology in Parkinson's Disease. How α-Synuclein is released into the extracellular space is still unclear. Here, we show that α-Synuclein is present in extracellular vesicles in the central nervous system. We find that sorting of α-Synuclein in extracellular vesicles is(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a predominantly clinical and electromyographic diagnosis. Conventional MRI reveals atrophy of the motor system, particularly the pyramidal tract, in the advanced stages but does not provide a sensitive measure of disease progression. Three patients with different principal symptoms of ALS, i.e., with predominant(More)
In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and prion diseases, deposits of aggregated disease-specific proteins are found. Oligomeric aggregates are presumed to be the key neurotoxic agent. Here we describe the novel oligomer modulator anle138b [3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(3-bromophenyl)-1H-pyrazole], an(More)
Many neurological disorders like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or stroke have in common a definite loss of CNS neurons due to apoptotic or necrotic neuronal cell death. Previous studies suggested that proapoptotic stimuli may trigger an abortive and, therefore, eventually fatal cell cycle reentry in postmitotic(More)