Learn More
Endogenous dynorphin signaling via the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully mediates negative affective states and stress reactivity. Excitatory inputs from the hippocampus and amygdala play a fundamental role in shaping the activity of both NAcc D1 and D2 MSNs, which encode positive and negative motivational valences,(More)
Afferent inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) control reward-related behaviors through regulation of dopamine neuron activity. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) provides one of the most prominent projections to the VTA; however, recent studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the function of these inhibitory inputs. Using optogenetics,(More)
In this report, we describe a two-step protocol for labeling of an affinity-purified antibody to biotin with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a bridge. The enzyme was first modified with CC, and following chromatography on a PD-10 column, the activated HRP was incubated with the antibody to effect coupling of the two proteins.(More)
  • 1