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Clostridium perfringens types A and C and Clostridium difficile are the principal enteric clostridial pathogens of swine. History, clinical signs of disease, and gross and microscopic findings form the basis for a presumptive diagnosis of C. perfringens type-C enteritis. Confirmation is based on isolation of large numbers of type-C C. perfringens and/or(More)
Clostridium difficile was investigated as a possible cause of enteritis in calves. The organism and its toxins (TcdA and TcdB), respectively, were found in 25.3% and 22.9% of stool samples from diarrheic calves. Culture positive samples were more likely than culture negative samples to be toxin positive. However, toxin positive stools were more common among(More)
Isolates (n = 94) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were obtained from sheep, goats, horses, and cattle from various parts of the world. The isolates were characterized biochemically and by restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA. We found near homogeneity in the ability of isolates to ferment carbohydrates and to produce urease. All isolates produced(More)
Poultry necrotic enteritis (NE) has, over recent decades, been prevented and treated by addition of antimicrobials to poultry feed. Recent bans of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed, as well as other factors, have led to a slow, worldwide re-emergence of NE. Understanding of pathogenesis of NE has been hampered by lack of a consistent and effective(More)
Necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry has re-emerged as a concern for poultry producers, due in part to banning, by many countries, of the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feeds. This re-emergence has led to a search for alternative methods for control of the disease, particularly vaccination. The objective of this work was to determine if vaccination(More)
To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, we sampled cooked and uncooked meat products sold in Tucson, Arizona. Forty-two percent contained toxigenic C. difficile strains (either ribotype 078/toxinotype V [73%] or 027/toxinotype III [NAP1 or NAP1-related; 27%]). These findings indicate that food products may play a role in interspecies C.(More)
Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea worldwide, and recent reports suggested the emergence of a hypervirulent strain in North America and Europe. In this study, we applied comparative phylogenomics (whole-genome comparisons using DNA microarrays combined with Bayesian phylogenies) to model the phylogeny of C. difficile,(More)
Withdrawal of antimicrobial growth promoters and ionophore coccidiostats has been accompanied by a resurgence in incidence of necrotic enteritis (NE), a severe Clostridium perfringens-induced disease which some consider the most clinically dramatic bacterial enteric disease of poultry. Lesions, in jejunum and ileum, are focal-to-confluent, often with a(More)