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Research on the involvement of C1D and its yeast homologues Rrp47 (S. cerevisiae) and Cti1 (S. pombe) in DNA damage repair and RNA processing has remained mutually exclusive, with most studies predominantly concentrating on Rrp47. This review will look to reconcile the functions of these proteins in their involvement with the RNA exosome, in the regulation(More)
Afferent inputs to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) control reward-related behaviors through regulation of dopamine neuron activity. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) provides one of the most prominent projections to the VTA; however, recent studies have provided conflicting evidence regarding the function of these inhibitory inputs. Using optogenetics,(More)
In this report, we describe a two-step protocol for labeling of an affinity-purified antibody to biotin with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) using cyanuric chloride (CC) as a bridge. The enzyme was first modified with CC, and following chromatography on a PD-10 column, the activated HRP was incubated with the antibody to effect coupling of the two proteins.(More)
Endogenous dynorphin signaling via the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) powerfully mediates negative affective states and stress reactivity. Excitatory inputs from the hippocampus and amygdala play a fundamental role in shaping the activity of both NAcc D1 and D2 MSNs, which encode positive and negative motivational valences,(More)
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