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We have studied allozyme variation at 26 gene loci in nine populations of Drosophila melanogaster originating on five different continents. The distant populations show significant genetic differentiation. However, only half of the loci studied have contributed to this differentiation; the other half show identical patterns in all populations. The genetic(More)
Macrophages are pivotal effector cells of the innate immune system, which is vital for recognizing and eliminating invasive microbial pathogens. When microbial products bind to pathogen-recognition receptors, macrophages become activated and release a broad array of cytokines that orchestrate the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Initially(More)
In spite of the critical role of the process of adaptation in evolution, there are few detailed studies of the genotypic and molecular basis of the process. Drosophila melanogaster flies selected for increased tolerance to ethanol exhibited higher levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.1) activity than unselected controls. A(More)
Aging may be determined by a genetic program and/or by the accumulation rate of molecular damages. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the mitochondrial metabolism have been postulated to be the central source of molecular damages and imbalance between levels of intracellular ROS and antioxidant defenses is a characteristic of the aging brain. How(More)
Chromosome pairing at meiosis is an essential feature in cell biology, which determines trait inheritance and species evolution. Complex polyploids may display diverse pairing affinities and offer favorable situations for studying meiosis. The genus Saccharum encompasses diverse forms of polyploids with predominantly bivalent pairing. We have focused on a(More)
In vertebrates, a limited number of homeobox-containing transcription factors are expressed in the optic vesicle primordium and are required and sufficient for eye formation. At present, little is known about the distinct functions of these factors in optic vesicle growth and on the nature of the main neuroepithelial (NE) progenitor population present in(More)
On the basis of their buoyant densities in CsCl and their capsid polypeptides, three viruses isolated from Drosophila spp. which were originally described as serotypes, are now classified as distinct viruses. The biochemical properties of each virus suggest that it has several key features in common with the mammalian picornaviruses.
Nuclear DNA was extracted from each of the eight species comprising the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. Southern hybridization of this DNA by using a molecular probe specific for the alpha-amylase coding region showed that the duplicated structure of the amylase locus, first found in D. melanogaster, is conserved among all species of the(More)
Picornaviruses were sought in a large number of D. melanogaster strains, coming from laboratories or recently collected from different parts of the world. About a third of these stocks contained viruses. Regions naturally infected were warm countries. Picornaviruses found in laboratories as well as in wild drosophila flies were the already known P and C(More)
We previously reported the isolation of mutants hypersensitive to the genotoxic agent 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, a potent inducer of oxidative stress. One of the mutants was defective in a gene designated yPTPA1, encoding a protein related to the human phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator hPTPA, which is believed to play a role in activating the(More)