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Squids from the genus Euprymna (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) and their symbiotic bacteria Vibrio fischeri form a mutualism in which vibrios inhabit a complex light organ within the squid host. A host-mediated daily expulsion event seeds surrounding seawater with symbiotically capable V. fischeri that environmentally colonize newly hatched axenic Euprymna(More)
Bioluminescence is widespread among many different types of marine organisms. Metazoans contain two types of luminescence production, bacteriogenic (symbiotic with bacteria) or autogenic, via the production of a luminous secretion or the intrinsic properties of luminous cells. Several species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae(More)
To determine whether Lassa virus was circulating in southern Mali, we tested samples from small mammals from 3 villages, including Soromba, where in 2009 a British citizen probably contracted a lethal Lassa virus infection. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of Lassa virus from an area previously unknown for Lassa fever.
BACKGROUND Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are maintained in endemic foci that involve a diversity of small mammals and argasid ticks in the genus Ornithodoros. Most epidemiological studies of tick-borne relapsing fever in West Africa caused by Borrelia crocidurae have been conducted in Senegal. The risk for humans to acquire relapsing fever in Mali(More)
BACKGROUND With the global distribution, morbidity, and mortality associated with tick and louse-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to understand the dynamics of vector colonization by the bacteria and transmission to the host. Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are blood-borne pathogens transmitted through the saliva of soft ticks, yet(More)
BACKGROUND Lassa fever is an acute viral illness characterized by multi-organ failure and hemorrhagic manifestations. Lassa fever is most frequently diagnosed in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea, although sporadic cases have been recorded in other West African countries, including Mali. The etiological agent of Lassa fever is Lassa virus (LASV),(More)
BACKGROUND Relapsing fever spirochetes are global yet neglected pathogens causing recurrent febrile episodes, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pregnancy complications. Given these nonspecific clinical manifestations, improving diagnostic assays for relapsing fever spirochetes will allow for identification of endemic foci and expedite proper treatment.(More)
Borrelia hermsii is a blood-borne pathogen transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Since spirochaete clearance in mice is associated with an IgM-mediated response, an immunoproteomic analysis was used to identify proteins reactive with IgM. We report that IgM from both mice and human patients infected with B. hermsii not only reacted with the(More)
BACKGROUND Borrelia turicatae, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, is an example of a pathogen that can adapt to disparate conditions found when colonizing the mammalian host and arthropod vector. However, little is known about the genetic factors necessary during the tick-mammalian infectious cycle, therefore we developed a genetic system to transform(More)
In June 2013, a Caucasian male from Kerr county, Texas, with an extensive history of outdoor activity working with sheep, goats, and exotic game became ill, displaying fever, chills, uveitis, headache, retrobulbar pain, severe malaise, and weakness. Myalgia was centered on upper extremities , most notably the shoulders, arms, and hands, and by July 2013 the(More)