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Immunization with purified Anaplasma marginale outer membranes induces complete protection against infection that is associated with CD4+ T-lymphocyte-mediated gamma interferon secretion and immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody titers. However, knowledge of the composition of the outer membrane immunogen is limited. Recent sequencing and annotation of the A.(More)
Rickettsial pathogens in the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia cause acute infection in immunologically naive hosts and are major causes of tick-borne disease in animals and humans. Immunization with purified outer membranes induces protection against acute Anaplasma marginale infection and disease, and a proteomic and genomic approach recently identified 21(More)
The ability to rapidly screen a complex pathogen proteome for proteins that elicit recall T-lymphocyte responses from immune individuals would accelerate vaccine development. An outer membrane fraction of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale induces protective immunity against infection and disease in cattle. We have used this immunization model to(More)
BACKGROUND Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are maintained in endemic foci that involve a diversity of small mammals and argasid ticks in the genus Ornithodoros. Most epidemiological studies of tick-borne relapsing fever in West Africa caused by Borrelia crocidurae have been conducted in Senegal. The risk for humans to acquire relapsing fever in Mali(More)
In a previous immunoproteome analysis of Borrelia hermsii, candidate antigens that bound IgM antibodies from mice and patients infected with relapsing fever spirochetes were identified. One candidate that was identified is a hypothetical protein with a molecular mass of 57 kDa that we have designated Borrelia immunogenic protein A (BipA). This protein was(More)
Anaplasma and related Ehrlichia spp. are important tick-borne, Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of livestock and humans that cause acute infection and disease and can persist. Immunization of cattle with an Anaplasma marginale fraction enriched in outer membranes (OM) can provide complete protection against disease and persistent infection. Serological(More)
Ornithodoros hermsi Wheeler (Acari: Argasidae) is the vector of Borrelia hermsii, the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. This tick is one of the smallest Ornithodoros species involved with the biological transmission of spirochetes; yet, the amount of blood ingested while feeding is unknown. Therefore, we determined the amount of(More)
BACKGROUND Lassa fever is an acute viral illness characterized by multi-organ failure and hemorrhagic manifestations. Lassa fever is most frequently diagnosed in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea, although sporadic cases have been recorded in other West African countries, including Mali. The etiological agent of Lassa fever is Lassa virus (LASV),(More)
BACKGROUND With the global distribution, morbidity, and mortality associated with tick and louse-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to understand the dynamics of vector colonization by the bacteria and transmission to the host. Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are blood-borne pathogens transmitted through the saliva of soft ticks, yet(More)