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The aim was to determine the association between loss of muscle mass, loss of muscle strength, and physical ability in individuals with ID. Upper and lower extremity strength, muscle mass and muscle quality (MQ) were calculated. Physical ability was measured according to the Katz activities of daily living (ADL), stair climb test, and sit-to-stand test. We(More)
The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the(More)
Leo Kanner described autism in 1943, and Hans Asperger described the syndrome in 1944. The term Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) was first used in the 1980s to describe a class of disorders that include (1) Autistic disorder, (2) Rett disorder or syndrome, (3) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, (4) Asperger's disorder or syndrome, and (5) Pervasive(More)
Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical training on balance, strength, and general well-being in adult people with intellectual disability (ID). This study evaluated how physical training can effect physical and psychological change among 'older' adults with mild ID. Participants consisted of non-randomly selected groups with ID(More)
In this paper, restricted to describe the ontogenesis of the cell, we discuss the processing of DNA through RNA to proteins and argue that this process is not able to transfer the information necessary to organize the proteins in the cell, but only to transfer the information necessary to form the shape of the proteins. We shortly describe the structure of(More)
The field of holistic medicine is in need of a scientific approach. We need holistic medicine--and we even need it to be spiritual to include the depths of human existence--but we need it to be a little less "cosmic" in order to encompass the whole human being. Many important research questions and challenges, empirical as well as theoretical, demand the(More)
Uninterrupted morphogenesis shows the informational potentials of biological organisms. Experimentally disturbed morphogenesis shows the compensational dynamics of the biological informational system, which is the rich informational redundancy. In this paper, we use these data to describe morphogenesis in terms of the development of supracellular levels of(More)