Joaquín Barnoya

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BACKGROUND Secondhand smoke increases the risk of coronary heart disease by approximately 30%. This effect is larger than one would expect on the basis of the risks associated with active smoking and the relative doses of tobacco smoke delivered to smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS AND RESULTS We conducted a literature review of the research describing the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. METHODS Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry(More)
Smoke-free policies have been an important tobacco control intervention. As recently as 20 years ago, few communities required workplaces and hospitality venues to be smoke-free, but today approximately 11% of the world's population live in countries with laws that require these places to be smoke-free. This paper briefly summarises important milestones in(More)
BACKGROUND The tobacco industry has formed regional environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programs in order to generate controversy on the issue of secondhand smoke (SHS) in Europe, Asia and Latin America. Only those countries in which the industry foresaw SHS restrictions were included. This paper describes the European and Asian components of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. METHODS Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with(More)
INTRODUCTION Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates all signatory countries to "protect citizens from exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, public transport and indoor public places." Even though there has been great progress in the implementation of Article 8, still most of the world population remains exposed to secondhand(More)
OBJECTIVES We compared the effectiveness and cost of percutaneous occlusion using an Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) (AGA Medical Corp., Golden Valley, Minnesota) device compared with surgical closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II) in Guatemala. BACKGROUND The percutaneous occlusion of ASD II in first-world nations seems to offer(More)
Objective: The California tobacco control program enacted in 1988 has been associated with declines in smoking and heart disease mortality. Since smoking also causes lung cancer, we investigated whether the program was associated with a decline in lung and other cancer incidence. Methods: Age-adjusted incidence rates of lung and bladder cancer (which are(More)
BACKGROUND One of the perceived major contraindications to early extubation after pediatric cardiac surgery is preoperative pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The objective of this study is to present the results of early extubation (within 6 hours after open heart surgery) in children who had varying degrees of preoperative pulmonary arterial(More)
BACKGROUND Congenital cardiac disease is the greatest cause of death in patients with Down's syndrome during the first two years of life, with from two-fifths to two-thirds of those with Down's syndrome also having congenital cardiac malformations. The lesions within the heart can be single or multiple. Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and type(More)