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In Europe, southern peninsulas served as refugia during cold periods in the Pleistocene, acting both as centres of origin of endemisms and as sources from which formerly glaciated areas were recolonized during interglacial periods. Previous studies have revealed that within the main refugial areas, intraspecific lineages often survived in allopatric(More)
Computational models based on discrete dynamical equations are a successful way of approaching the problem of predicting or forecasting the future evolution of dynamical systems. For linear and mildly nonlinear models, the solutions of the numerical algorithms on which they are based converge to the analytic solutions of the underlying differential(More)
[1] The new generation of remote sensors on board NASA's A‐Train constellation offers the possibility of observing the atmospheric boundary layer in different regimes, with or without clouds. In this study we use data from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) campaign, to verify the accuracy and precision(More)
This review surveys current and emerging drought monitoring approaches using satellite remote sensing observations from climatological and ecosystem perspectives. We argue that satellite observations not currently used for operational drought monitoring, such as near-surface air relative humidity data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder mission, provide(More)
[1] We use five years of data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to develop a correlation between the frequency of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC) and the zonal mean tropical surface temperature. AIRS data show that the frequency of DCC in the tropical oceans is very temperature sensitive, increasing 45% per 1 K increase of the zonal mean surface(More)
A study of the occurrence of ducts valid at GPS frequencies in the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric fields is presented. A radio occultation simulator has been applied to determine the mean location of the occultations for a 10 day period in May 2001. In total, 5348 occultations were found. Refractivity profiles have(More)
Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier(More)
3 ied in aquaplanet experiments using the global Weather Research and Fore-4 casting (WRF) model. We show how the scaling of precipitation extremes 5 is highly sensitive to spatial and temporal averaging: while instantaneous grid-6 point extreme precipitation scales more strongly than the percentage increase 7 (7% K −1) predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron(More)