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The global decline in the abundance and diversity of insect pollinators could result from habitat loss, disease, and pesticide exposure. The contribution of the neonicotinoid insecticides (e.g., clothianidin and imidacloprid) to this decline is controversial, and key to understanding their risk is whether the astonishingly low levels found in the nectar and(More)
This paper presents a 1.5-bit MDAC circuit to be used in pipeline ADCs which employs a switched-current source to perform the reference shifting of the MDAC (the 1.5-bit digital-to-analog function). In the proposed circuit, the two single-ended reference voltage sources that are traditionally used (V<inf>REFP</inf> and V<inf>REFN</inf>), are replaced by a(More)
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