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Nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti are transcriptionally induced by flavonoid signal molecules, such as luteolin, produced by its symbiotic host plant, alfalfa. This induction depends on expression of nodD. Upstream of three inducible nod gene clusters, nodABC, nodFE, and nodH, is a highly conserved sequence referred to as a 'nod box.' The(More)
This work describes a multifunctional phage lambda expression vector system, lambda YES, designed to facilitate gene isolation from eukaryotes by complementation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutations. lambda YES vectors have a selection for cDNA inserts using an oligo adaptor strategy and are capable of expressing genes in both E. coli(More)
The soil bacterium Rhizobium meliloti invades and establishes a symbiosis with host plants such as alfalfa. Bacterial nodulation (nod) genes are required for this invasion, but their mechanism of action and the timing of their expression are not known. We have used translational lacZ fusions to monitor expression of nodD and nodC, which are located in the(More)
Based on a high-performance liquid chromatographic pump, we have built a device that allows recirculation of DNA through a 63-microm orifice with ensuing fractionation to a minimum fragment size of approximately 300 base pairs. Residence time of the DNA fragments in the converging flow created by a sudden contraction was found to be sufficiently long to(More)
Recent educational research has turned increasing attention to the structural development of young students' mathematical thinking. Early algebra, multiplicative reasoning, and spatial structuring are three areas central to this research. There is increasing evidence that an awareness of mathematical structure is crucial to mathematical competence among(More)
Nodulation (nod) gene expression in Rhizobium meliloti requires plant inducers and the activating protein product of the nodD gene. We have examined three genes in R. meliloti which have nodD activity and sequence homology. These three nodD genes are designated nodD1, nodD2 and nodD3, and have distinctive properties. The nodD1 gene product activates(More)
Nodulation genes in Rhizobium are required for invasion of the host plant. The nodABC operon is induced by plant activator molecules; this activation requires the gene product of the constitutively expressed nodD locus, which is transcribed divergently from nodABC. We are employing in vitro transcription to elucidate the molecular mechanism of nod gene(More)
Rhizobium meliloti nod genes are required for the infection of alfalfa. Induction of the nodC gene depends on a chemical signal from alfalfa and on nodD gene expression. By using a nodC-lacZ fusion, we have shown that the induction of the R. meliloti nodC gene and the expression of nodD occur at almost normal levels in other Rhizobium backgrounds and in(More)
Current quantification methods for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics either do not provide sufficient control of variability or are difficult to implement for routine clinical testing. We present here an integrated quantification (InteQuan) method that better controls pre-analytical and analytical variability than the popular quantification method(More)