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OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that(More)
Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots(More)
Understanding behavioral indicators of pain and other assessment techniques can help one to recognize pain in birds and prompt us to treat birds with analgesics. An analgesic plan needs to include(More)