Joanne O. Davidson

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OBJECTIVE Connexin hemichannels can open during ischemia, resulting in loss of membrane potential, calcium influx, and release of glutamate. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that opening of hemichannels after cerebral ischemia may contribute to delayed evolution of injury. METHODS We infused a mimetic peptide that blocks connexin 43 hemichannels(More)
Preterm infants have a high rate of neurodevelopmental handicap. Recent imaging studies have revealed that adverse outcomes are strongly associated with reduced brain growth and neural complexity in later life. Increasing data suggest that these chronic deficits primarily reflect acute neuronal and glial injury sustained during adverse in utero events, such(More)
The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were(More)
A total of nine normal volunteer subjects were studied with three forms of [99mTc] hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (HM-PAO), a potential cerebral blood flow imaging agent. One, the d,l isomer, showed 4.1% uptake in the brain which remained constant over 8 hr. There was good differentiation between uptake in gray and white matter on tomographic slices. We(More)
Maternal treatment with synthetic corticosteroids such as dexamethasone (DEX)significantly reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality, but its effects on the fetal brain remain unclear. In this study we evaluated the effects of DEX on EEG activity in preterm fetal sheep. Ewes at 103 days gestation received two intramuscular injections of DEX (12 mg, n = 8) or(More)
There is increasing evidence that connexin hemichannels, the half gap junctions that sit unopposed in the cell membrane, can open during ischemia and that blockade of connexin43 hemichannels after cerebral ischemia can improve neural outcomes. However, it is unclear whether connexin blockade during ischemia is protective. In the present study global(More)
Fetuses at risk of premature delivery are now routinely exposed to maternal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids. In randomized clinical trials, these substantially reduce acute neonatal systemic morbidity, and mortality, after premature birth and reduce intraventricular hemorrhage. However, the overall neurodevelopmental impact is surprisingly unclear;(More)
Cerebral palsy is one of the most devastating consequences of brain injury around the time of birth, and nearly a third of cases are now associated with premature birth. Compared with term babies, preterm babies have an increased incidence of complications that may increase the risk of disability, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular(More)
Hypoxia-ischemia before or around the time of birth occurs in approximately 2/1000 live births and is associated with a high risk of death or lifelong disability. Therapeutic hypothermia is now well established as standard treatment for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy but is only partially effective. There is compelling(More)
Spontaneous antenatal hypoxia is associated with high risk of adverse outcomes, however, there is little information on neural adaptation to labor-like insults. Chronically instrumented near-term sheep fetuses (125 ± 3 days, mean ± SEM) with baseline PaO2 < 17 mmHg (hypoxic group: n = 8) or > 17 mmHg (normoxic group: n = 8) received 1-minute umbilical cord(More)