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BACKGROUND Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) as HIV diagnosis with a CD4 count(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether HIV-infected patients on a stable and fully suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen could safely be monitored less often than the current recommendations of every 3 months. DESIGN Two thousand two hundred and forty patients from the EuroSIDA study who maintained a stable and fully suppressed cART(More)
BACKGROUND Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and death. We aimed to identify the prognostic value of 25(OH)D for AIDS, non-AIDS-defining events and death, and its association with immunological/inflammatory markers. METHODS Prospective 1-1 case-control study(More)
BACKGROUND This study compared the incidence of fatal and nonfatal AIDS and non-AIDS events in HIV-positive individuals with a CD4 cell count more than 350  cells/μl among viral load strata: low (<500  copies/ml), intermediate (500-9999.9  copies/ml) and high (≥ 10000  copies/ml). METHODS Individuals contributed person-years at risk if their most recent(More)
BACKGROUND In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies account for more morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients than AIDS-defining malignancies. However, conflicting data have been reported on the relationship between immunodeficiency and the(More)
Improved methods for targeting HIV testing among patients most likely to be infected are required; HIDES I aimed to define the methodology of a European wide study of HIV prevalence in individuals presenting with one of eight indicator conditions/diseases (ID); sexually transmitted infection, lymphoma, cervical or anal cancer/dysplasia, herpes zoster,(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the incidence of and risk factors for modifications to first antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, treatment interruption and death. METHODS A total of 21 801 patients from 18 cohorts in Europe and North America starting ART on regimens including at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and boosted protease inhibitor(More)
BACKGROUND Despite current interest in attachment disorder, there is concern about its discrimination from other disorders and an unproven assumption of an environmental aetiology. AIMS To test whether behaviours suggestive of attachment disorder are distinct from other childhood behavioural and emotional problems and are solely environmentally(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM While hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence is known to vary greatly between countries, systematically collected population-level prevalence data from some countries is limited. Antenatal HBV screening programs in countries with substantial migrant populations provide the opportunity to systematically examine HBV prevalence in order to(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the known substantial benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cumulative adverse effects could still limit the overall long-term treatment benefit. Therefore we investigated changes in the rate of death with increasing exposure to cART. METHODS A total of 12 069 patients were followed from baseline, which was defined as(More)