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Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (Ig CSR) involves DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) at recombining switch regions and repair of these breaks by nonhomologous end-joining. Because the protein kinase ataxia telengiectasia (AT) mutated (ATM) plays a critical role in DSB repair and AT patients show abnormalities of Ig isotype expression, we assessed the(More)
A new procedure for the purification of the arom multienzyme complex from Neurospora crassa is presented. Important factors are the inactivation of proteinases by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride and the use of cellulose phosphate as an affinity adsorbent. A homogeneous enzyme, with a specific shikimate dehydrogenase activity of 70 units/mg of protein, is(More)
At present, radiation-attenuated plasmodia sporozoites ( gamma -spz) is the only vaccine that induces sterile and lasting protection in malaria-naive humans and laboratory rodents. However, gamma -spz are not without risks. For example, the heterogeneity of the gamma -spz could explain occasional breakthrough infections. To avoid this possibility, we(More)
Superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) has been isolated and characterised from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis and from aerobically-grown Rhodopseudomonas spheroides, a purple, non-sulphur bacterium. The former enzyme contains 1 gatom of iron and the latter 1 gatom of manganese per mol; both enzymes have a molecular weight of 37 000-38 000, being(More)
A phase 2a RTS,S/AS malaria vaccine trial, conducted previously at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, conferred sterile immunity against a primary challenge with infectious sporozoites in 40% of the 80 subjects enrolled in the study. The frequency of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD4(+) T cells was significantly(More)
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a population of TCRalphabeta-expressing cells that are unique in several respects. In contrast to conventional T cells, iNKT cells are selected in the thymus for recognition of CD1, rather than conventional MHC class I or II, and are selected by CD1-expressing double-positive thymocytes, rather than by the thymic stromal cells(More)
The c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is induced by cytokines and stress stimuli and is implicated in cell death and differentiation, but the specific function of this pathway depends on the cell type. Here we examined the role of JNK1 and JNK2 in CD8 T cells. Unlike CD4 T cells, the absence of JNK2 causes increased interleukin (IL)-2(More)