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At present, radiation-attenuated plasmodia sporozoites ( gamma -spz) is the only vaccine that induces sterile and lasting protection in malaria-naive humans and laboratory rodents. However, gamma -spz are not without risks. For example, the heterogeneity of the gamma -spz could explain occasional breakthrough infections. To avoid this possibility, we(More)
Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (Ig CSR) involves DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) at recombining switch regions and repair of these breaks by nonhomologous end-joining. Because the protein kinase ataxia telengiectasia (AT) mutated (ATM) plays a critical role in DSB repair and AT patients show abnormalities of Ig isotype expression, we assessed the(More)
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a population of TCRalphabeta-expressing cells that are unique in several respects. In contrast to conventional T cells, iNKT cells are selected in the thymus for recognition of CD1, rather than conventional MHC class I or II, and are selected by CD1-expressing double-positive thymocytes, rather than by the thymic stromal cells(More)
A phase 2a RTS,S/AS malaria vaccine trial, conducted previously at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, conferred sterile immunity against a primary challenge with infectious sporozoites in 40% of the 80 subjects enrolled in the study. The frequency of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD4(+) T cells was significantly(More)
BACKGROUND A vaccine to prevent infection and disease caused by Plasmodium vivax is needed both to reduce the morbidity caused by this parasite and as a key component in efforts to eradicate malaria worldwide. Vivax malaria protein 1 (VMP001), a novel chimeric protein that incorporates the amino- and carboxy- terminal regions of the circumsporozoite protein(More)
A new procedure for the purification of the arom multienzyme complex from Neurospora crassa is presented. Important factors are the inactivation of proteinases by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride and the use of cellulose phosphate as an affinity adsorbent. A homogeneous enzyme, with a specific shikimate dehydrogenase activity of 70 units/mg of protein, is(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is induced by cytokines and stress stimuli and is implicated in cell death and differentiation, but the specific function of this pathway depends on the cell type. Here we examined the role of JNK1 and JNK2 in CD8(+) T cells. Unlike CD4(+) T cells, the absence of JNK2 causes increased interleukin(More)
Malaria continues to be a major public health concern, and there are concerted efforts to eliminate it. The quest for a vaccine remains a top priority, and vaccines based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) are among the lead candidates, with the RTS,S vaccine currently undergoing phase 3 testing in Africa. Previous studies have reported anti-CSP(More)
Plasmodium vivax is the major cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa and causes morbidity and results in significant economic impact in developing countries. In order to produce a P. vivax vaccine for global use, we have previously reported the development of VMP001, based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of P. vivax. Our interest is to(More)