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BACKGROUND Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes illness ranging from uncomplicated pharyngitis to life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock, and rheumatic fever. Attempts to develop an M protein-based vaccine have been hindered by the fact that some M proteins elicit both protective antibodies and antibodies that cross-react with human tissues. New(More)
Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) is universally fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Following the identification of disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infections in Canadian First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) children with unrecognized primary immune deficiencies, a national surveillance study was(More)
IMPORTANCE Global use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to prevent cervical cancer is impeded by cost. A 2-dose schedule for girls may be possible. OBJECTIVE To determine whether mean antibody levels to HPV-16 and HPV-18 among girls receiving 2 doses was noninferior to women receiving 3 doses. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Randomized, phase 3,(More)
BACKGROUND Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses remain a threat to human health, with potential to become pandemic agents. METHODS This phase III, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study evaluated the immunogenicity, cross-reactivity, safety, and lot consistency of 2 doses of oil-in-water (AS03(A)) adjuvanted H5N1 A/Indonesia/05/2005 (3.75 μg(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to estimate age-specific hospitalization rates attributed to influenza and other virus for adults. METHODS Admissions from Canada's national hospitalization database (Canadian Institute of Health Information), from 1994/95 to 1999/2000, were modeled as a function of proxy variables for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and(More)
BACKGROUND The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology of this condition. METHODS A retrospective chart review was completed of children presenting with aseptic meningitis to eight Canadian(More)
OBJECTIVE Although universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough) infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in the incidence of pertussis, outbreaks continue to occur in countries with excellent vaccine coverage. Treatment of infection may ameliorate symptom severity during the catarrhal phase of pertussis but has no effect on(More)
BACKGROUND Empirical data on laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza is limited by very low and possibly non-systematic case ascertainment as well as geographical variation. OBJECTIVE To provide a visual representation of an influenza epidemic at the community and regional level using empirical data and to describe the epidemic characteristics. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Because adolescents and adults act as a primary source of pertussis infection for infants, vaccination of mothers immediately postpartum is a potential strategy to reduce transmission (cocoon strategy). For this to be effective, high levels of antibodies must be achieved rapidly after vaccination. We sought to determine whether the antibody(More)
BACKGROUND Mismatch between circulating influenza B viruses (Yamagata and Victoria lineages) and vaccine strains occurs frequently. METHODS In a randomized controlled trial, immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate (QIV) versus trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)-Victoria(Vic) and TIV-Yamagata(Yam) in(More)