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Compared to bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes employ an additional enzyme for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine (Sec), the 21(st) natural amino acid (aa). An essential RNA-dependent kinase, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase (PSTK), converts seryl-tRNA(Sec) to O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec), the immediate precursor of selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec). The sequence of(More)
Selenocysteine (Sec) biosynthesis in archaea and eukaryotes requires three steps: serylation of tRNA Sec by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), phos-phorylation of Ser-tRNA Sec by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA Sec kinase (PSTK), and conversion of O-phosphoseryl-tRNA Sec (Sep-tRNA Sec) by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) to Sec-tRNA Sec. Although SerRS recognizes both(More)
Selenocysteine (Sec) is naturally incorporated into proteins by recoding the stop codon UGA. Sec is not hardwired to UGA, as the Sec insertion machinery was found to be able to site-specifically incorporate Sec directed by 58 of the 64 codons. For 15 sense codons, complete conversion of the codon meaning from canonical amino acid (AA) to Sec was observed(More)
We tested the substrate range of four wild-type E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) with a library of nonstandard amino acids (nsAAs). Although these AARSs could discriminate efficiently against the other canonical amino acids, they were able to use many nsAAs as substrates. Our results also show that E. coli tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) and(More)
Selenocysteine (Sec) biosynthesis in archaea and eukaryotes requires three steps: serylation of tRNA(Sec) by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), phosphorylation of Ser-tRNA(Sec) by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase (PSTK), and conversion of O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) (Sep-tRNA(Sec)) by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) to Sec-tRNA(Sec). Although SerRS recognizes(More)
O-Phosphoseryl-tRNA kinase (PSTK) is the key enzyme in recruiting selenocysteine (Sec) to the genetic code of archaea and eukaryotes. The enzyme phosphorylates Ser-tRNA(Sec) to produce O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) (Sep-tRNA(Sec)) that is then converted to Sec-tRNA(Sec) by Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase. Earlier we reported the structure of the Methanocaldococcus(More)
Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense(More)
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